Nissan GT-R

This latest in the long line of Nissan’s GT-Rs has received a different nickname from everyone that drives it, and for good reason.

This GT-R not only beats the established players, it takes the rule book and does a burn-out right on top of it. £30,000 cheaper than a 911 Turbo, yet more powerful, better handling, and quicker around the Nurburgring. A driving gadget show, every bit of new tech is included on this Japanese toy, from the twin-clutch gearbox, through the onboard g-meter, to the super-trick 4wd system.

Devastatingly fast it has undeniably remained, and it apparently continues to loom large in the imagination of anyone under the age of 35.

Yet in so many ways other than outright speed, the cutting edge of the premium sports car segment has long since moved out of the reach of the GT-R, even as Nissan blithely inflated its list price to suggest parity with markedly superior opposition.

And so as the GT-R ages, its brief subtly changes. Added comfort, luxuriousness and refinement are among the priorities of the comprehensive 2017-model-year update, which comes after the car’s last major facelift in 2011.

Styling has been tweaked, the interior upgraded, refinement measures improved, the chassis revised and – inevitably – peak power from the twin-turbocharged 3.8-litre V6 increased.

£81,805 – £172,805

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ASTEROID experts have produced a terrifying simulation Comparing the Size of Asteroids in our Solar System to New York City .

The Absolutely Frightening apocalyptic consequences of a colossal space rock colliding with Earth.

Comparison of asteroid sizes

Asteroids are rocky worlds revolving around the sun that are too small to be called planets. They are also known as planetoids or minor planets. There are millions of asteroids, ranging in size from hundreds of miles to several feet across. In total, the mass of all the asteroids is less than that of Earth’s moon.

Despite their size, asteroids can be dangerous. Many have hit Earth in the past, and more will crash into our planet in the future. That’s one reason scientists study asteroids and are eager to learn more about their numbers, orbits and physical characteristics. If an asteroid is headed our way, we want to know that.

The video begins by comparing a human to one of the minor planets before revealing their enormity as the following asteroids quickly dwarf New York City in its entirety. It comes out with asteroid 2008 TC3, which is around 4.1 meters in diameter.

Things take a dramatic turn when asteroid 99942 Apophis steps onto the scene with an average diameter of 370 meters. Then it goes all the way up to 1 Ceres (which is 939km in diameter) and takes up a large chunk of the US.

Stephen Hawking in his last book, Brief Answers to the Big Questions, wrote that asteroids are the biggest threat to Earth. If any of these hit the Earth it would be devastating.

Formation

Asteroids are leftovers from the formation of our solar system about 4.6 billion years ago. Early on, the birth of Jupiter prevented any planetary bodies from forming in the gap between Mars and Jupiter, causing the small objects that were there to collide with each other and fragment into the asteroids seen today.

Understanding of how the solar system evolved is constantly expanding. Two fairly recent theories, the Nice model and the Grand Tack, suggest that the gas giants moved around before settling into their modern orbits. This movement could have sent asteroids from the main belt raining down on the terrestrial planets, emptying and refilling the original belt.

Physical characteristics

Asteroids can reach as large as Ceres, which is 940 kilometers (about 583 miles) across. On the other end of the scale, the smallest asteroid ever studied is the 6-foot-wide (2 meters) space rock 2015 TC25, which was observed when it made a close flyby of Earth in October 2015. The chances of it hitting Earth in the foreseeable future are small, Vishnu Reddy of the University of Arizona’s Lunar and Planetary Laboratory said in a statement.

“You can think of [an asteroid] as a meteorite floating in space that hasn’t hit the atmosphere and made it to the ground — yet,” Reddy added.

Nearly all asteroids are irregularly shaped, although a few of the largest are nearly spherical, such as Ceres. They are often pitted or cratered — for instance, Vesta has a giant crater some 285 miles (460 km) in diameter. The surfaces of most asteroids are thought to be covered in dust.

As asteroids revolve around the sun in elliptical orbits, they rotate, sometimes tumbling quite erratically. More than 150 asteroids are also known to have a small companion moon, with some having two moons. Binary or double asteroids also exist, in which two asteroids of roughly equal size orbit each other, and triple asteroid systems are known as well. Many asteroids seemingly have been captured by a planet’s gravity and become moons — likely candidates include Mars’ moons, Phobos and Deimos, and most of the outer moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune.

The average temperature of the surface of a typical asteroid is minus 100 degrees Fahrenheit (minus 73 degrees Celsius). Asteroids have stayed mostly unchanged for billions of years — as such, research into them could reveal a great deal about the early solar system.

Asteroids come in a variety of shapes and sizes. Some are solid bodies, while others are smaller piles of rubble bound together by gravity. One, which orbits the sun between Neptune and Uranus, comes with its own set of rings. Another has not one but six tails.

Classification

Asteroids lie within three regions of the solar system. Most asteroids lie in a vast ring between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter. This main asteroid belt holds more than 200 asteroids larger than 60 miles (100 km) in diameter. Scientists estimate the asteroid belt also contains between 1.1 million and 1.9 million asteroids larger than 1 km (3,281 feet) in diameter and millions of smaller ones.

Not everything in the main belt is an asteroid — Ceres, once thought of only as an asteroid, is now also considered a dwarf planet. In the past decade, scientists have also identified a class of objects known as “main belt asteroids,” small rocky objects with tails. While some of the tails form when objects crash into an asteroid, or by disintegrating asteroids, others may be comets in disguise.

Many asteroids lie outside the main belt. Trojan asteroids orbit a larger planet in two special places, known as Lagrange points, where the gravitational pull of the sun and the planet are balanced. Jupiter Trojans are the most numerous, boasting nearly as high a population as the main asteroid belt. Neptune, Mars and Earth also have Trojan asteroids.

Near-Earth asteroids (NEAs) circle closer to Earth than the sun. Amor asteroids have close orbits that approach but no not cross Earth’s path, according to NASA. Apollo asteroids have Earth-crossing orbits but spend most of their time outside the planet’s path. Aten asteroids also cross Earth’s orbit but spend most of their time inside Earth’s orbit. Atira asteroids are near-Earth asteroids whose orbits are contained within Earth’s orbit. According to the European Space Agency, roughly 10,000 of the known asteroids are NEAs.

In addition to classifications of asteroids based on their orbits, most asteroids fall into three classes based on composition:

The C-type or carbonaceous asteroids are grayish in color and are the most common, including more than 75 percent of known asteroids. They probably consist of clay and stony silicate rocks, and inhabit the main belt’s outer regions.

The S-type or silicaceous asteroids are greenish to reddish in color, account for about 17 percent of known asteroids, and dominate the inner asteroid belt. They appear to be made of silicate materials and nickel-iron.

The M-type or metallic asteroids are reddish in color, make up most of the rest of the asteroids, and dwell in the middle region of the main belt. They seem to be made up of nickle-iron.

There are many other rare types based on composition as well — for instance, V-type asteroids typified by Vesta have a basaltic, volcanic crust.

Earth impacts

Ever since Earth formed about 4.5 billion years ago, asteroids and comets have routinely slammed into the planet. The most dangerous asteroids are extremely rare, according to NASA.

An asteroid capable of global disaster would have to be more than a quarter-mile wide. Researchers have estimated that such an impact would raise enough dust into the atmosphere to effectively create a “nuclear winter,” severely disrupting agriculture around the world. Asteroids that large strike Earth only once every 1,000 centuries on average, NASA officials say.

Smaller asteroids that are believed to strike Earth every 1,000 to 10,000 years could destroy a city or cause devastating tsunamis. According to NASA, space rocks smaller than 82 feet (25 m) will most likely burn up as they enter Earth’s atmosphere, which means that even if 2015 TC25 hit Earth, it probably wouldn’t make it to the ground.

On Feb. 15, 2013, an asteroid slammed into the atmosphere over the Russian city of Chelyabinsk, creating a shock wave that injured 1,200 people. The space rock is thought to have measured about 65 feet (20 m) wide when it entered Earth’s atmosphere.

When an asteroid, or a part of it, crashes into Earth, it’s called a meteorite. Here are typical compositions:

Iron meteorites

  • Iron: 91 percent
  • Nickel: 8.5 percent
  • Cobalt: 0.6 percent

Stony meteorites

  • Oxygen: 6 percent
  • Iron: 26 percent
  • Silicon: 18 percent
  • Magnesium: 14 percent
  • Aluminum: 1.5 percent
  • Nickel: 1.4 percent
  • Calcium: 1.3 percent

Asteroid defense

Dozens of asteroids have been classified as “potentially hazardous” by the scientists who track them. Some of these, whose orbits come close enough to Earth, could potentially be perturbed in the distant future and sent on a collision course with our planet. Scientists point out that if an asteroid is found to be on a collision course with Earth 30 or 40 years down the road, there is time to react. Though the technology would have to be developed, possibilities include exploding the object or diverting it.

For every known asteroid, however, there are many that have not been spotted, and shorter reaction times could prove more threatening.

When asteroids do close flybys of Earth, one of the most effective ways to observe them is by using radar, such as the system at NASA’s Goldstone Deep Space Communications Complex in California. In September 2017, the near-Earth asteroid 3122 Florence cruised by Earth at 4.4 million miles (7 million km), or 18 times the distance to the moon. The flyby confirmed its size (2.8 miles or 4.5 km) and rotation period (2.4 hours). Radar also revealed new information such as its shape, the presence of at least one big crater, and two moons.

In a NASA broadcast from earlier in 2017, Marina Brozovic, a physicist at NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, said radar can reveal details such as its size, its shape, and whether the asteroid is actually two objects (a binary system, where a smaller object orbits a larger object.) “Radar is a little bit like a Swiss army knife,” she said. “It reveals so much about asteroids all at once.”

In the unlikely event that the asteroid is deemed a threat, NASA has a Planetary Defense Coordination Office that has scenarios for defusing the situation. In the same broadcast, PDCO planetary defense officer Lindley Johnson said the agency has two technologies at the least that could be used: a kinetic impactor (meaning, a spacecraft that slams into the asteroid to move its orbit) or a gravity tractor (meaning, a spacecraft that remains near an asteroid for a long period of time, using its own gravity to gradually alter the asteroid’s path.) PDCO would also consult with the White House and the Federal Emergency Management Agency (FEMA) and likely other space agencies, to determine what to do. However, there is no known asteroid (or comet) threat to Earth and NASA carefully tracks all known objects through a network of partner telescopes.

Water delivery?

Ironically, the collisions that could mean death for humans may be the reason we are alive today. When Earth formed, it was dry and barren. Asteroid and comet collisions may have delivered the water-ice and other carbon-based molecules to the planet that allowed life to evolve. At the same time, the frequent collisions kept life from surviving until the solar system calmed down. Later collisions shaped which species evolved and which were wiped out.

According to NASA’s Center for Near Earth Object Studies CNEOS), “It seems possible that the origin of life on the Earth’s surface could have been first prevented by an enormous flux of impacting comets and asteroids, then a much less intense rain of comets may have deposited the very materials that allowed life to form some 3.5 – 3.8 billion years ago.”

Discovery & naming

In 1801, while making a star map, Italian priest and astronomer Giuseppe Piazzi accidentally discovered the first and largest asteroid, Ceres, orbiting between Mars and Jupiter. Although Ceres is classified today as a dwarf planet, it accounts for a quarter of all the mass of all the known asteroids in or near the main asteroid belt.

Over the first half of the 19th century, several asteroids were discovered and classified as planets. William Herschel coined the phrase “asteroid” in 1802, but other scientists referred to the newfound objects as minor planets. By 1851, there were 15 new asteroids, and the naming process shifted to include numbers, with Ceres being designated as (1) Ceres. Today, Ceres shares dual designation as both an asteroid and a dwarf planet, while the rest remain asteroids.

Since the International Astronomical Union is less strict on how asteroids are named when compared to other bodies, there are asteroids named after Mr. Spock of “Star Trek” and rock musician Frank Zappa, as well as more solemn tributes, such as the seven asteroids named for the crew of the Space Shuttle Columbia killed in 2003. Naming asteroids after pets is no longer allowed.

Asteroids are also given numbers — for example, 99942 Apophis.

Exploration

The first spacecraft to take close-up images of asteroids was NASA’s Galileo in 1991, which also discovered the first moon to orbit an asteroid in 1994.

In 2001, after NASA’s NEAR spacecraft intensely studied the near-earth asteroid Eros for more than a year from orbit, mission controllers decided to try and land the spacecraft. Although it wasn’t designed for landing, NEAR successfully touched down, setting the record as the first to successfully land on an asteroid.

In 2006, Japan’s Hayabusa became the first spacecraft to land on and take off from an asteroid. It returned to Earth in June 2010, and the samples it recovered are currently under study.

NASA’s Dawn mission, launched in 2007, began exploring Vesta in 2011. After a year, it left the asteroid for a trip to Ceres, arriving in 2015. Dawn was the first spacecraft to visit Vesta and Ceres. As of 2017, the spacecraft still orbits the extraordinary asteroid.

In September 2016, NASA launched the Origins, Spectral Interpretation, Resource Identification, Security, Regolith Explorer (OSIRIS-REx), which will explore the asteroid Bennu before grabbing a sample to return to Earth.

“Sample return is really at the forefront of scientific exploration,” OSIRIS-REx principal investigator Dante Lauretta said at a press conference.

In January 2017, NASA selected two projects, Lucy and Psyche, via its Discovery Program. Planned to launch in October 2021, Lucy will visit an object in the asteroid belt before going on to study six Trojan asteroids. Psyche will travel to 16 Psyche, an enormous metallic asteroid that may be the core of an ancient Mars-size planet, stripped of its crust through violent collisions.

In 2012, a company called Planetary Resources, Inc. announced plans to eventually send a mission to a space rock to extract water and mine the asteroid for precious metals. Since then, NASA has begun to work on plans for its own asteroid-capture mission.

According to CNEOS, “It has been estimated that the mineral wealth resident in the belt of asteroids between the orbits of Mars and Jupiter would be equivalent to about 100 billion dollars for every person on Earth today.”

 

$645million 370ft eco-friendly superyacht powered by liquid hydrogen

The designers of the world’s first hydrogen-fueled super yacht have denied the $645million vessel is going to Microsoft boss Bill Gates.

The 370ft vessel, which only emits water, had been linked to Gates for his penchant for super yachts and his keen interest in technological solutions to climate change.

But Sinot, the designers of the concept ship, have since denied this is the case.

The yacht, unveiled at the Monaco Yacht Show last year, comprises five decks complete with space for 14 guests, 31 crew members, a gym, yoga studio, beauty room, massage parlor and cascading pool on its rear deck.

But its most impressive feature is locked away in the hold – two 28-ton vacuum-sealed tanks that are cooled to -423F (-253C) and filled with liquid hydrogen which powers the ship.

The Aqua superyacht is a futuristic design that is 370ft-long, comprised of five decks, and runs off liquid hydrogen meaning it only emits water. Design studio Sinot said the exterior of the vessel was inspired by ocean swells, the movement of the tides, and weather out on the open ocean

The Aqua superyacht is a futuristic design that is 370ft-long, comprised of five decks, and runs off liquid hydrogen meaning it only emits water. Design studio Sinot said the exterior of the vessel was inspired by ocean swells, the movement of the tides, and weather out on the open ocean

 

The rear of the vessel has two entertaining areas - one lower lounge area for sunbathing or swimming - and an upper entertaining space with room for outdoor dining. Gel-fuelled fire bowls allow guests to stay warm on colder evenings without having to burn wood or coals

 

The rear of the vessel has two entertaining areas – one lower lounge area for sunbathing or swimming – and an upper entertaining space with room for outdoor dining. Gel-fuelled fire bowls allow guests to stay warm on colder evenings without having to burn wood or coals

The rear deck features an infinity pool which cascades towards the ocean, while floor-to-ceiling glass windows lead through into a downstairs entertaining space with dining room for 14 people and a home cinema

 

The rear deck features an infinity pool which cascades towards the ocean, while floor-to-ceiling glass windows lead through into a downstairs entertaining space with dining room for 14 people and a home cinema

Aqua was unveiled at the Monaco Yacht Show, which runs from September 25-28 in Port Hercules. While the yacht is only a design concept at the moment, its architects hope it will inspire future designs based on its eco-friendly fuel system

 

Aqua was unveiled at the Monaco Yacht Show, which runs from September 25-28 in Port Hercules. While the yacht is only a design concept at the moment, its architects hope it will inspire future designs based on its eco-friendly fuel system

A huge staircase at the centre of the vessel spirals around a water feature (centre) to the lower level, where the ship's hydrogen fuel tanks can be viewed through a glass panel (rear). Each tank weighs 28 tons, is vacuum sealed and cooled to -423F (-253C) in order to hold the hydrogen fuel

 

A huge staircase at the centre of the vessel spirals around a water feature (centre) to the lower level, where the ship’s hydrogen fuel tanks can be viewed through a glass panel (rear). Each tank weighs 28 tons, is vacuum sealed and cooled to -423F (-253C) in order to hold the hydrogen fuel

The liquid hydrogen is pumped through special PEM fuel cells which convert it into electricity which runs the engines and electronics on board. The supply is moderated using two fuel cells to make sure it stays constant. The only emission from the system is water, which can be safely pumped into the ocean

 

The liquid hydrogen is pumped through special PEM fuel cells which convert it into electricity which runs the engines and electronics on board. The supply is moderated using two fuel cells to make sure it stays constant. The only emission from the system is water, which can be safely pumped into the ocean

Bill Gates orders world’s first hydrogen-powered superyacht

 

The new vessel is not expected to be ready to take to the open seas until 2024.

In a statement, Sinot said today that claims the vessel’s concept had been bought by Gates were ‘factually incorrect.’

The hydrogen is pumped through a special type of fuel cell which converts it into electricity, while emitting only water which can be safety pumped into the ocean.

Despite its novel fuel source, the vessel is able to reach 17 knots and travel 3,750 miles before it needs to refuel, enough to cover an Atlantic crossing from New York to Southampton.

Designer Sander Sinot is hoping it will pave the way towards a more ecological future for the superyacht industry.

The boat will easily be able to cross the Atlantic  but it will also have a backup diesel engine due to the scarcity of Hydrogen refueling points

The boat will easily be able to cross the Atlantic  but it will also have a backup diesel engine due to the scarcity of Hydrogen refueling points

The ship's wheelhouse is located under a bubble hood-shaped roof on the bridge deck and has a 360 degree view of the surrounding ocean. It is from this spaceship-like room that the ship's captain and his 32-strong crew operate the vessel

The ship’s wheelhouse is located under a bubble hood-shaped roof on the bridge deck and has a 360 degree view of the surrounding ocean. It is from this spaceship-like room that the ship’s captain and his 32-strong crew operate the vessel

The master suite occupies the entire 50ft width of the Aqua under a central skylight, broken into separate 'rooms' using wooden dividers. Floor-to-ceiling windows provide plenty of light from both sides, while the interior can be decorated however the new owner wishes. A doorway at the read leads through to the bedroom and bathroom

The master suite occupies the entire 50ft width of the Aqua under a central skylight, broken into separate ‘rooms’ using wooden dividers. Floor-to-ceiling windows provide plenty of light from both sides, while the interior can be decorated however the new owner wishes. A doorway at the read leads through to the bedroom and bathroom

The yacht contains enough space for 14 guests and 32 crew, including the huge owner's pavilion (bedroom, pictured), two other VIP state rooms for their most valued guests and four regular state rooms

 

The yacht contains enough space for 14 guests and 32 crew, including the huge owner’s pavilion (bedroom, pictured), two other VIP state rooms for their most valued guests and four regular state rooms

The master bathroom also features floor-to-ceiling windows looking out over the ocean, a large central bathtub, his-and-hers vanity units off to either side, and his-and-hers shower units to the left and right

 

The master bathroom also features floor-to-ceiling windows looking out over the ocean, a large central bathtub, his-and-hers vanity units off to either side, and his-and-hers shower units to the left and right

 

Gates, 64, is known to regularly take vacations onboard superyachts and would usually rent boats during summer trips to the Mediterranean. Here he is pictured along with Melinda in Turkey in 2005

Bill and Melinda Gates are spotted on vacation in Marmaris, Turkey travelling on a speedboat in October 2005

Bill and Melinda Gates are spotted on vacation in Marmaris, Turkey travelling on a speedboat in October 2005

He said: ‘With every project, I challenge my team and myself to surpass ourselves. For development of AQUA we took inspiration from the lifestyle of a discerning, forward-looking owner, the fluid versatility of water and cutting-edge technology to combine this in a superyacht with truly innovative features.’

Working alongside Lateral Naval Architects, Sinot spent five months perfecting the details in the yacht in the hopes of one day being able to transform it into a real vessel.

Although this new yacht will be run on liquid hydrogen, there will also be an engine that runs on diesel as a back-up due to a current lack of hydrogen refueling stations.

The gym features a range of workout machines, a full set of dumbbells and a yoga studio. A window stretching the entire width of the gym at sea-level gives the impression of working out on the water itself

 

The gym features a range of workout machines, a full set of dumbbells and a yoga studio. A window stretching the entire width of the gym at sea-level gives the impression of working out on the water itself

Located in a room to the side of the gym is the hydro massage room, where passengers are massage by soothing water jets that rain down on the central granite table

 

Located in a room to the side of the gym is the hydro massage room, where passengers are massage by soothing water jets that rain down on the central granite table

The upper-deck lounge area leads directly off the owner's pavilion area and has floor-to-ceiling windows as well as views out over the outdoor entertaining space. It can be used either as a casual entertaining space, or for al-fresco dining

 

The upper-deck lounge area leads directly off the owner’s pavilion area and has floor-to-ceiling windows as well as views out over the outdoor entertaining space. It can be used either as a casual entertaining space, or for al-fresco dining

A lounge space within the lower-deck entertaining area can either be set up for casual conversation, or rotate to face a cinema screen. Behind the seating area is the formal dining space, with settings for 14 people

A lounge space within the lower-deck entertaining area can either be set up for casual conversation, or rotate to face a cinema screen. Behind the seating area is the formal dining space, with settings for 14 people

Aside from the fuel source, the yacht’s other features include a wheelhouse that looks like something out of a spaceship, a huge central staircase spiraling around a water feature, and a beauty and fitness suite.

The rear deck features two entertaining areas – one upper and one lower – along with a cascading pool, sun loungers, and outdoor dining space.

There is also storage space for two 32ft tenders – smaller boats used to get to and from the main yacht – three jet-skis and smaller ‘water toys’.

Computer-generated images of the yacht, along with a 10ft scale model, were unveiled by Sinot at the Monaco Yacht Show last year.

The yacht's designers said they wanted it to combine 'ground-breaking technology with cutting-edge design' and provide a blueprint for future designs using eco-friendly fuel sources

The yacht’s designers said they wanted it to combine ‘ground-breaking technology with cutting-edge design’ and provide a blueprint for future designs using eco-friendly fuel sources

This water feature - comprised of a jet falling from the ceiling into the pool below - sits at the centre of the gym complex, with doorways at either side leading to the workout room and the massage parlour

This water feature – comprised of a jet falling from the ceiling into the pool below – sits at the centre of the gym complex, with doorways at either side leading to the workout room and the massage parlour

A top-down view of the vessel showing the two outdoor entertaining areas at the rear, the central bubble bridge containing the wheelhouse and a view down through the ceiling window in the owner's pavilion

 

A top-down view of the vessel showing the two outdoor entertaining areas at the rear, the central bubble bridge containing the wheelhouse and a view down through the ceiling window in the owner’s pavilion

The boat was in a design concept when it was unveiled at the Monaco Boat Show

The boat was in a design concept when it was unveiled at the Monaco Boat Show

The Aqua also comes with space for two tenders - smaller boats used to get to the larger vessel - three jet-skis and a range of other 'water toys'

The Aqua also comes with space for two tenders – smaller boats used to get to the larger vessel – three jet-skis and a range of other ‘water toys’

HOW DO HYDROGEN FUEL CELLS WORK?

Hydrogen fuel cells create electricity to power a battery and motor by mixing hydrogen and oxygen in specially treated plates, which are combined to form the fuel cell stack.

Fuel cell stacks and batteries have allowed engineers to significantly shrink these components to even fit neatly inside a family car, although they are also commonly used to fuel buses and other larger vehicles.

Oxygen is collected from the air through intakes, usually in the grille, and hydrogen is stored in aluminium-lined fuel tanks, which automatically seal in an accident to prevent leaks.

These ingredients are fused, releasing usable electricity and water as byproducts and making the technology one of the quietest and most environmentally friendly available.

Reducing the amount of platinum used in the stack has made fuel cells less expensive, but the use of the rare metal has restricted the spread of their use.

Recent research has suggested hydrogen fuel cell cars could one day challenge electric cars in the race for pollution-free roads, however – but only if more stations are built to fuel them.

Fuel cell cars can be refueled as quickly as gasoline-powered cars and can also travel further between fill-ups.

Fuelling stations cost up to $2 million to build, so companies have been reluctant to build them unless more fuel cell cars are on the road.

The U.S. Department of Energy lists just 34 public hydrogen fuelling stations in the country; all but three are in California.

According to Information Trends, there were 6,475 FCV’s worldwide at the end of 2017.

More than half were registered in California, which puts the U.S. (53 per cent) at the forefront for FCV adoption.

Japan takes second place with 38 per cent, while Europe is at nine per cent.

Hermès Has Teamed up With Bugatti for an Elegantly-Dressed One-Off Chiron

Hermès bugatti hypercar supercar custom racing chiron Manny Khoshbin

Taking three years to complete, the project paints the entire Chiron in an elegant white shade named Hermès Craie, unique to this commissioned one-off. The shade extends from the bodywork to the rear bumper to even the wheels and the interior, which is paired with Hermès leather and cashmere panels. The front grilles have been customized with the Parisian brand’s signature H monogram, while its iconic Courbettes horse motif graces the underside of the rear wing, visible when elevated.

It’s not the first time that Manny Khoshbin has collaborated with Hermes for a hypercar, but this is the latest addition to the hypercar-filled garage.

BUGATTI and Hermès have a long standing tradition. Ettore and Émile-Maurice Hermès had already collaborated in the 1920s. This tradition was revived in 2008 for the Veyron and now, eleven years later for a one off BUGATTI Chiron Hermes 1:1

 

Bugatti-Chiron-Hermes-Edition-Manny-Khoshbin-10.jpgBugatti-Chiron-Hermes-Edition-Manny-Khoshbin-15.jpg

The interior boasts a custom cashmere with the wing’s horse pattern on the door inserts and beneath the center controls. A one-of-one badge that reads “Dressed by Hermès” appears on the center stack., and more one-of-one labels are scattered throughout.

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Hermès Courbettes Graphic with a series of rearing horses in wool and cashmere sheet for the interior. Originally offered on Hermès famous foulards and home fabrics, for the first time it is applied in a super sports car.
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Powered by 1500 horses, rearing under the Chiron’s wing. @mannykhoshbin chose Hermès’ traditional Courbettes graphic for the underside of the airbrake.
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The Badass Toyota Supra 4×4 Dune Buggy

2020 Toyota Supra 4×4

Following Toyota’s announcement about the Supra rebirth, automobile design enthusiasts have created countless mockups of the 2020 Toyota Supra 4×4 Concept. 

One of these is Rain Prisk, an Estonian digital graphic designer at Ubisoft Reflections studio. 

Thanks to his amazing concept of this awesome vehicle, he has taken the excitement several notches higher. He conceptualized the all-time favourite into a 4×4 model, opening up the fenders to create space for beefy off-road tires.

His shooting brake version has a wider, lower shape and a front-end winch. A step on the sides adds functional appeal to the design so you don’t have to jump in. 

2020 Toyota Supra 4×4

If you happen to love adventure, you will appreciate the roof rack and the snorkel intake for when you have to ford deep water. Add to this the running boards and front skid plate and we have a winner!

 

Photo of Billy the Kid playing cards with his gang – just the second known picture of the notorious gunman – is set to fetch $1m at auction after family of fellow outlaw Billy Wilson decided to sell it

A rare photo of notorious outlaw Billy the Kid has emerged on the market with a $1 million price-tag.

The previously unseen black and white image from 1877 shows the outlaw playing cards with his gang. It is only the second confirmed image of the wanted man.

In the photo, Billy the Kid can be seen sitting around a table with three members of his gang – Richard Brewer, Fred Waite and Henry Brown – all of whom were wanted men.

The then-21-year-old is seen dressed in a white shirt, dark waistcoat and top hat.

From left to right: Richard Brewer, Bill the Kid, Fred Waite and Henry Brown - all of whom were wanted men. The black and white wet collodion tin type image is thought to dates back to around 1877 and is only the second confirmed image of the notorious American outlaw.

From left to right: Richard Brewer, Bill the Kid, Fred Waite and Henry Brown – all of whom were wanted men. The black and white wet collodion tin type image is thought to dates back to around 1877 and is only the second confirmed image of the notorious American outlaw.

All four men are depicted carefully considering their hand. On the table in front of them is a glass bottle of liquor which appears to have been largely consumed.

At the time, Billy the Kid, who also used the name William H. Bonney, was a wanted man having murdered a blacksmith in Arizona.

He is believed to have gone on to kill another seven men during the Lincoln County War in 1878. One of those was the Lincoln County Sheriff William Brady.

Billy the Kid was eventually caught by Sheriff Pat Garrett who shot him in the dark.

The photo has been kept in the same family for over a century, after it was given to the vendor's grandfather by the widow of a Billy Wilson, a gang member and friend of Billy the Kid

The photo has been kept in the same family for over a century, after it was given to the vendor’s grandfather by the widow of a Billy Wilson, a gang member and friend of Billy the Kid

The photo now for sale has never been made public before and has been kept in the same family for over a century.

It was originally given to the vendor’s grandfather by the widow of David Anderson, who was better known as Billy Wilson.

Wilson was a member of the infamous gang having befriended Billy the Kid when riding alongside him during the Lincoln County War.  After receiving a presidential pardon in 1896, he later went on to serve as sheriff of Terrell County and also worked as a US customs inspector.

The photograph was given to him, by Billy the Kid, for safe keeping prior to the outlaw’s death.

The photo then ended up in the vendor’s family, after his grandfather, Billy Wilson’s second cousin was given the precious momento.

In a letter detailing the photograph’s journey into his family, vendor Tomas R. Anderson II said: ‘When my grandfather and family went to pay their respects to the widow of David Anderson at his 1918 funeral, she gifted him, with among other items, a small leather family photograph album.

‘She explained to my grandfather’s family about the history of the photograph and how Billy had gifted the photo to her husband.’

The photo has remained in his family, but Mr Anderson from Arizona, has decided the time is right to sell it.

A letter from the vendor details the story of how the photograph got into his family's possession

A letter from the vendor details the story of how the photograph got into his family’s possession

It has been verified by the George Eastman Museum in Texas which is the world’s oldest museum dedicated to photography and named after the founder of Kodak.

Mark Osterman, a process historian at the museum, said the image is consistent with it being a wet collodion tintype photograph that were made between 1870 and 1890.

The picture is to go under the hammer with Sofe Design Auctions of Richardson, near Dallas, Texas.

A spokesman for Sofe Design said: “This is a historically important, incredibly rare and one-of-a-kind.

“It is only the second positively documented and analysed photographic image of Billy the Kid as well as the only known group image to include him.

“It also possesses meticulous and irrefutable Anderson family provenance dating back three generations.

“It has never been seen before and nor has it been publicly offered for sale.”

The picture is to go under the hammer with Sofe Design Auctions of Richardson, near Dallas, Texas. A spokesman for the auction house said the image was a rare one-of-a-kind photograph

The photograph, which remains in a good condition for its age, has been verified by the world's oldest museum dedicated to photography

The picture is to go under the hammer with Sofe Design Auctions of Richardson, near Dallas, Texas. A spokesman for the auction house said the image was a rare one-of-a-kind photograph

The photograph, which will be up for auction on Friday, comes in a cream leather wallet

The photograph, which will be up for auction on Friday, comes in a cream leather wallet

The photograph remains in fantastic original condition and comes in a cream leather frame.

Of his fellow card players in the picture Brewer was shot dead in the Lincoln County War while Waite and Brown were long-time cowboys.

Together, and along with a number of other outlaws, they became known as the ‘Billy the Kid Gang’.

The 1988 movie Young Guns, which starred Emilio Estevez as Billy the Kid as well as Charlie Sheen and Kiefer Sutherland, told the story of the fugitive’s rise in notoriety.

It’s 1990 sequel, Young Guns II, featured his arrest, jail break out and death at the hands of Garrett.

The auction takes place on Friday.

This 130-year-old tintype photograph was, till the emergence of the second photo, the only authenticated image of the notorious American outlaw Billy the Kid

Billy the Kid can be seen in a top hat (on the left) playing cards with his friends

This 130-year-old tintype photograph on the left was, till the emergence of the second photo (right) the only authenticated image of the notorious American outlaw Billy the Kid

So Who was Billy The kid ?

Billy the Kid was a notorious outlaw who lived in the American Wild West during the mid to late 19th century. The subject of more than 50 movies, the local legend, has achieved global notoriety as scriptwriters took the tale  of the gun-toting outlaw to big screens around the world. 

Bill the Kid can be seen, in a top hat (right) playing cards with his fellow gang members in a rare photo of the notorious American outlaw

Bill the Kid can be seen, in a top hat (right) playing cards with his fellow gang members in a rare photo of the notorious American outlaw

So who is Billy the Kid and what led to his untimely death at the age of 21? 

  • Billy the Kid is believed to have been born Henry McCarty in the Irish slums of New York City in September or November of 1859 – though his birth place, date of birth and even birth name is widely debated
  • He moved to Wichita, Kansas, as a boy with his single mother, before later migrating west to New Mexico in the early 1870s
  • The young Henry became an orphan in 1874 at the age of 14 after his mother died of tuberculosis
  • Left in the care of an absentee stepfather he is said to have quickly fallen into a life of poverty, mixed with a rough crowd and soon found himself on a path of crime
  • The young lad’s first  arrest, and subsequent jailbreak, was said to be for stealing clothes from a local Chinese laundry in 1875. He faced a minor sentence but rather than sit it out behind bars the then 16-year-old escaped and fled town
  • In 1877 he arrived in Lincoln County, New Mexico, under the name William Bonney. In August of that year he is said to have killed his first man during a dispute in an Arizona saloon
  • He earned a reputation as a gunslinger, a man who was quick to pull the trigger, in 1878 when he participated in the Lincoln County War
  • The conflict was marked by revenge killings, including one that saw a gang Billy the Kid was affiliated with kill the Lincoln County Sheriff William Brady
  • In late 1880 Bill the Kid was  found guilty of the murder of Sheriff William Brady and sentenced to be hanged. But on the evening of April 28, 1881 he slipped out of his handcuffs and ambushed and shot a couple of guards in his prison break
  •  After his escape from death row the wanted man remained a fugitive from the law till the evening of July 14 1881. Sheriff Pat Garrett and two deputies rode into town where it was believed the fugitive was hiding out. He was taken by surprise, cornered and fatally shot with two bullets by the sheriff
  • Despite his reputation as an outlaw of the Wild West Billy the Kid did not live the life of a bandit. He had never robbed a bank, train or stagecoach. Outside of his early years and gun-fighting days in the Lincoln County War his main crime was said to be rustling cattle

 Sources: Crime Museum, Britannica, and the History Channel

Vaydor G35

The Vaydor G35 is a kit car that is designed to be built onto a 2003-2007 Infiniti G35 coupe donor car. It was originally built by Vaydor Bodykits LLC, which is based out of Pinellas Park, Florida.The Vaydor first appeared in the 2013 SEMA auto show.

One of the reasons the Vaydor G35 became so popular this year was because of its recent appearance in the movie Suicide Squad. The Joker’s supercar looking ride looks like a Lamborghini Aventador and a Bugatti Chiron made love and gave birth to the Lambogatti. Which then got all romantic with a catfish and gave birth to this thing, the Vaydor G35.

The G35, as in the Infiniti G35 Coupe from 2003-2007. This is a “Re-Body” as Matt McEntegart, owner of Vaydor Exotics, coins it. The Vaydor G35 takes an existing G35 and strips all of the cosmetics off the car. The Bumpers, the trim, the glass, and the doors have all been disintegrated, leaving behind the car’s skeletal remains, drivetrain, wiring, and miscellaneous systems like the AC.

It was Designed by an Average Guy with No Money

My favorite part about the Vaydor body kit origin is that it is the perfect underdog story. The kit was designed by Matt McEntegart, a normal guy that loves cars and always wished he could own a supercar. Unfortunately, he didn’t have the money to buy one, so he built it himself.

He’s even said that he didn’t go to design school, he just learned as he went. The goal for the Vaydor G35 was to build a car that looked just like a factory production supercar that you could build in your garage.

 

Once you’ve stripped the car it only takes a non-supercar $11,000 to turn the bare G35 into the Vaydor G35. The fiberglass kit includes:

1 Main Rear Body Shell

1 Front Clip (Fenders and Bumper)

2 Door Outers, 2 Door Inners, 2 Inside Door Braces

1 Hood Skin, 1 Hood Inner

1 Roof Wing Cover, 1 Roof Wing Inner

1 Rear Hood Skin, 1 Rear Hood Inner

1 Gas Filler Bucket

2 Side Roof Rails

2 Lower Rocker Splitter

2 After-Door Vents

2 Fender Vents

1 Cowl/ Lower Windshield Cover

3 Rear Exit Vents (Tail Light Area)

1 Rear Floating Wing

1 Front Lower Splitter

2 Rear Fender Wells

1 Front Core Support

2-Quarter Glasses

1-Rear Glass

1-Center Tail Light (Parts listed above are for the hard top. Spider parts list will vary slightly (Removable Hard Top, etc.))

1 Full Cage

2 DOT Headlights

Front Core Support

2-Quarter Glasses

1-Rear Glass

1-Center Tail Light (Parts listed above are for the hard top. Spider parts list will vary slightly (Removable Hard Top, etc.))

1 Full Cage

2 DOT Headlights

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You’d then need another $3,000 for the interior materials which consists of:

2- Seats and Seat Backs

2-Door Panels

1- Dash Board

1- Console Center

1- Center Console Rear

1- Gauge Cluster Top

2- A-Pillars

2-Quarter Panels-HT

1-Headliner-HT

1-Dash Center Trim

1-Center Console Trim

If installed properly the results are amazing, probably as amazing as the story of the man who built this kit. As seen in the video, Matt took some big risks while tirelessly working on his passion, proving that success happens when you put in a lot of hard work and a little bit of luck comes your way.

 

Engine
Naturally aspirated 3.5L V6 – 280hp

Suspension / Brakes
The suspension set up utilizes a full adjustable coil over kit (optional active suspension or air ride) with heavy duty sway bars. Big Brake Kits from Brembo, Wilwood, and Stop Tech are available selections

Rims / Tires
Pirelli P-zero tires cover 22×9.5 (front) and 22×13 (rear) Amani Forged rims.

Turnkey, built by SuperCraft Cars with ang LS3 engine