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The invisible Superyacht.

Plans for an ‘invisible’ superyacht which blends into the sea and makes those on board feel like they are ‘floating on air’ have been unveiled.

The 106-metre Mirage, which could cost as much as £200million, will be completely clad in specially mirrored glass which reflects the image of the sea back to onlookers.

This will make it look as if the 4,200-tonne vessel has ‘vanished’ to people from as little as 50 metres away – though any radar will still detect the yacht with plenty of time to manoeuvre. Meanwhile, the yacht’s own radar can also look out for smaller boats on a collision course, giving the captain time to take any evasive action.

'Invisible' superyacht: Mirage has been designed to 'vanish' into the sea and give its billionaire owner some privacy

 

‘Invisible’ superyacht: Mirage has been designed to ‘vanish’ into the sea and give its billionaire owner some privacy

 

Mirage will be completely clad in specially mirrored glass which reflects the image of the sea back to onlookers, making it invisible from 50 metres away

 

Designed to be the ultimate purchase for privacy-hungry billionaires, Mirage comes fully equipped with a helipad, spa, outdoor theatre and cinema.

The six-decked craft can sleep 14 guests and 29 crew members, and can cruise at a comfortable speed of 19 knots.

It was developed by Italian boatbuilders Fincantieri and Dutch firm Van Geest Designs to ‘disappear between water and sky’ and ‘blend into the horizon’.

Designer Pieter Van Geest said it had taken a year to develop the blueprints and would take another three and a half years to construct.

The six-decked craft can sleep 14 guests and 29 crew members, and can cruise at a comfortable speed of 19 knots

 

The six-decked craft can sleep 14 guests and 29 crew members, and can cruise at a comfortable speed of 19 knots

 

One of the 4,200-tonne vessel's stunning decks with luxurious steps leading between levels and striking glass fittings

One of the 4,200-tonne vessel’s stunning decks with luxurious steps leading between levels and striking glass fittings

 

A dining area on one of the superyacht's spacious decks with room to accommodate dozens of guests for parties

A dining area on one of the superyacht’s spacious decks with room to accommodate dozens of guests for parties

 

Mirage comes fully equipped with a helipad, spa, outdoor theatre and cinema. Pictured: The designers' vision of one of the six decks

Mirage comes fully equipped with a helipad, spa, outdoor theatre and cinema. Pictured: The designers’ vision of one of the six decks

‘The longest part was researching the reflective glass and how it would be built,’ he said.

‘The main reason in designing this yacht was to make something that belonged to its environment.

‘Most yachts nowadays stand out and break the horizon or the landscape, in a way, we have tried to minimise this effect.

A luxurious swimming pool area on the 'invisible' superyacht surrounded by satellites of sun loungers inches from the ocean

A luxurious swimming pool area on the ‘invisible’ superyacht surrounded by satellites of sun loungers inches from the ocean

 

The £200million vessel has steps leading down into the sea so its billionaire owner can take a dip from one of the lower decks

The £200million vessel has steps leading down into the sea so its billionaire owner can take a dip from one of the lower decks

‘The colour variable mirrored glass is developed by a German glass manufacturer, which has never been used on yachts before.

‘All the vertical panels on the yacht will have this finish. If you were on the water it would probably be invisible from over 50 metres away.

‘If you are on the yacht itself the mirror will project the yacht’s surroundings, so in a way, it will give you a floating on air effect when onboard.’

The 106-metre vessel was developed by Italian boatbuilders Fincantieri and Dutch firm Van Geest Designs to 'disappear between water and sky' and 'blend into the horizon'

The 106-metre vessel was developed by Italian boatbuilders Fincantieri and Dutch firm Van Geest Designs to ‘disappear between water and sky’ and ‘blend into the horizon’

 

Designer Pieter Van Geest said it had taken a year to develop the blueprints and would take another three and a half years to construct

Designer Pieter Van Geest said it had taken a year to develop the blueprints and would take another three and a half years to construct

Mr Van Geest declined to put a price on the Mirage, but maritime experts suggested £200million would be reasonable for such a unique, luxury vessel.

If that was an accurate price tag it would place Mirage in the top 10 of the world’s most expensive yachts.

The list is currently topped by the £4billion History Supreme, which is made of solid gold and owned by Malaysia’s richest man, Robert Knok.

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Peaky Blinders Hairstyles and 1920s Fashion

peaky-blinders-fashion

Peaky Blinders has created an impressive name for itself, competing with some of the big boys including Game of Thrones and Stranger Things. Being as influential as they are, this style guide will tell you everything you need to know about how to recreate the boys’ hairstyles.

One of our favourite aspects of the show is the 1920s hairstyles and the Peaky Blinders fashion. From the flat caps to the hairstyles, we love how the Birmingham boys present themselves. This style guide will focus on their hair, so read on to learn for yourself how to recreate the Peaky Blinders haircut.

Tom Shelby Haircut

Let’s start with the head of the family, Tom Shelby. Played by Cillian Murphy, Tom Shelby’s hair was not only trending back in the 1920s but is also incredibly popular now. In fact, many things aired in these kinds of shows make their way back to the limelight, including the flat cap which is reported to have risen in sales by 85% since the show came to our screens. Anyway, back to the hair.

Tom Shelby’s hair is a short cropped style, with shaved back and sides and a short textured top. The sides aren’t shaved down to the skin but instead leaves enough to give the head a full coverage. The length of hair on the top is styled forwards, coming down over and across the forehead.

peaky-blinders-hairstyle-tom-shelby-grooming-inspiration-mens-fashion
Tom Shelby’s Hairstyle 

Get The Look

This style is so easy to re-create, just make sure you have the right face shape for it. Cillian Murphy is known for his pronounced high cheekbones which is the right kind of face shape to rock this lid with. Obviously, we aren’t all blessed with these cheekbones, however, our faces don’t have to be this defined – any cheekbones or oval face-shapes will do.

To achieve this look, you’ll need to go to the barbers and ask for about a number two on the back and sides. Get the top cut short enough that it doesn’t fall down the sides, but long enough to add some product in it to give it texture. Brush the top forward so that it gives almost a fringe – the amount of fringe you choose is up to you. Tom Shelby tends to push his to the side giving a side fringe effect, but if a full crop fringe is more you, go for it.

 

Arthur Shelby Haircut

Where Tom Shelby styles his hair pushed forwards, Arthur Shelby, played by Paul Anderson, likes his hair slicked right back, and again, this is a popular hairstyle today. Like Tom Shelby’s hairdo, Arthur’s is shaved short on the back and sides. Do you want to know a fun fact? People back in the 1920s shaved the sides and backs of their hair to prevent them from getting nits and lice. Nowadays, people shave for style purposes, but if the shoe fits…

Arthur’s hair is shaved back a lot shorter than Tom Shelby’s, but the top of his hair is longer and straight instead of curly. This slicked-back style is easy to achieve.

peaky-blinders-hairstyle-arthur-shelby-grooming-inspiration-mens-fashion
Arthur Shelby Hair Cut 

Get The Look

To get this look, you’ll need to shave your back and sides to a grade zero. Make sure the top of your hair stays pretty long so that you can slick it back the whole way. You’ll need a fair amount of wax or pomade to complete this look. You can either blow dry it back after you’ve washed it (or wet it) which will help it keep its shape, or you can use a product.

Take a small amount of product, be it was or pomade, and warm it up in your hands. This will make it smoother to add to your hair. Run the product through your hair with your fingertips, trying to make sure you get it all covered. Then use a comb and comb back your hair into shape, making sure the product runs all the way through. Always start with less product and build it up if you need more. The overall finish should hold your hair firm, but it shouldn’t go hard.

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John Shelby Haircut

John Shelby’s hair is almost a combination of Tom and Arthur Shelbys’ styles. His hair is completely shaved off on the sides, but the top of his hair isn’t as long as Arthur’s, although it is still straight. All three of these haircuts used to be styled this way as they were easy to wear with a hat, which, if you watch Peaky Blinders, you’ll know is an absolute staple for them.

These styles are also tidy and easy to maintain. If you want to go for this look now, you’ll have to keep on top of shaving the sides and backs of your head so that it doesn’t become untidy. John Shelby, played by Joe Cole, pulls off this look effortlessly.

peaky-blinders-hairstyle-john-shelby-grooming-inspiration-mens-fashion
John Shelby’s Hair 

Get The Look

To ace John Shelby’s hairstyle, you’ll need to get the back and sides of your head shaved off. If possible, leave a little bit of hair so that there is still some colour, but it will need to be very short. You’ll need to keep a bit of length on the top, but not too much that it starts to curl or falls down on your face. The trick to John’s hair is that it is that perfect length to stay where it is with little or no product, but still flops over.

If you were to use a product to get this look, use a light wax or pomade and go with the same technique as Arthur’s hair. However, don’t use as much on this look, as John’s hair doesn’t have that same slicked back, shiny style as Arthur’s.

 

Michael Gray Haircut

Here’s another fun fact for you. Michael Gray, played by Finn Cole, is the cousin of the Shelby boys in Peaky Blinders. Finn Cole is also Joe Cole’s (who plays John Shelby) younger brother in real life. How fun was that?

Michael Gray’s hairstyle is probably the most formal of the Peaky Blinders’ hairdos. His hair is slightly longer on the sides and floppier at the top, with less visible product holding it together. This style is the most transferable to everyday life – it easily matches any casual and smart outfits. This is a suave hairstyle that is so common nowadays. Unlike the other Peaky Blinders’ haircuts, this one is much more formal and it suits everyday life. Here, we see Michael Gray wear his Peaky Blinders Suit which goes perfectly with the do.

peaky-blinders-hairstyle-michael-gray-grooming-inspiration-mens-fashion
Michael Gray’s Hairstyle 

Get The Look

To achieve this look, you need to allow your hair to grow on the sides. There is still a bit of shave action going on to fade the bottom of the hair, but other than that, it’s all kept a pretty consistent length. Michael Gray has a slight curl in his hair, but unlike Tommy’s, the curl isn’t textured – it’s quite styled and smooth.

This will mean you’ll require some heat to perfect the curl (unless your hair is naturally curly). A round brush will work best for this as it will grab the hair allowing you to dry it easily from all the angles. Add some hairspray or another light product to finish the look – a wax might weight down the curl too much, losing definition. Make sure you keep this style brushed a looking smooth.

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Alfie Solomons Haircut

This haircut is all about the beard, and we all know how well Tom Hardy can grow a beard. Beards come and go in trend – sometimes it’s all about the fresh shave, and other times, the bigger the beard the better. Right now, a beard is good. However, Alife Solomons beard is quite full-on – we much prefer a neat, tidy and groomed beard, which is why we stock a whole load of products to help you shape and treat it.

Alfie Solomons has quite a full head of hair. The sides are shaved down but meets the beard, creating a frame for the face. This is a good hairstyle to go for if you have a rounder face as the beard will elongate it. When you have a full beard like this, always try to join your head hair to your facial hair for a cleaner finish.

peaky-blinders-hairstyle-alfie-solomons-grooming-inspiration-mens-fashion
Alfie Solomons Hairstyle 

Get The Look

You’ll need to be able to grow an impressive beard to pull off this look. If you’re still patchy, wait a few years and try again. Tom Hardy sports a pretty rough and ready beard (not just in Peaky Blinders), but we recommend you go for one that’s a bit more tamed. There are plenty of beard grooming kits that will help you cut down and shape your beard, but you can also go to a barber if you need help with this.

To keep your beard healthy, it’s important to wash it as well as your head of hair. There are also beard exfoliators and oils which will keep it smooth and reduce flyaways. Finally, invest in a beard comb or brush. You’ll be amazed at how often these will come in handy, especially when your beard gets bigger. If knots keep occurring, use a leave-in beard conditioner and comb to ease them out, or sleep with a nourishing beard mask in. Keeping your beard healthy is just as important as keeping your hair healthy.

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How To Nail The Peaky Blinders Hairstyles

  • Tom Shelby’s hair is shaved short to bout a grade two on the sides. The top of his hair is long enough to be pushed back and given texture using a product. It’s up to you whether you go for a pushed forward fringe or side fringe.
  • Arthur Shelby has a much more polished look, with his sides shaved completely and the top of his hair long and slicked back. Use a wax or pomade to complete this look and work it back with a comb.
  • John Shelby’s hair is a happy medium between the aforementioned. The sides are shaved off but and the top is textured, just not as long as Arthur’s.
  • Michael Gray has the more formal hairstyle of them all. This is achieved by having the same length back and sides and combing it neatly backwards. Finish off the bottom of the hair with a fade.
  • Alfie Solomons sports one hell of a beard. Make sure you’re able to grow a beard before you commit to this style. There are plenty of shaping and smoothing products to make sure your beard remains healthy, neat and clean.
 

 

Forget ‘survival of the fittest’ – the laziest will inherit the earth

Species which use the most energy in their daily lives die out quicker than less energetic animals, say evolutionary biologists

A study of over 300 species of molluscs that have lived and died in the Atlantic over the past five million years found that those with high metabolisms were the most likely to be extinct.
A study of over 300 species of molluscs that have lived and died in the Atlantic over the past five million years found that those with high metabolisms were the most likely to be extinct.

It is the perfect comeback for those who are admonished for not pulling their weight. Never mind that work is piling up, being lazy is a winning evolutionary strategy that postpones the extinction of the species.

That, at least, is one interpretation. Researchers who studied nearly 300 forms of mollusc that lived and died in the Atlantic over the past five million years found that a high metabolism predicted which species had gone the way of the dodo.

The sea snails, sea slugs, mussels and scallops which burned the most energy in their daily lives were more likely to have died out than their less energetic cousins, especially when they lived in small ocean habitats, the scientists found.

While the causes of extinction are varied and complex, the work points to a new link between the rate at which animals use energy to grow and maintain their body tissues and the length of time the species has on Earth.

“The lower the metabolic rate, the more likely the species you belong to will survive,” said Bruce Lieberman, a professor of ecology and evolutionary biology who led the research at Kansas University. “Instead of ‘survival of the fittest’, maybe a better metaphor for the history of life is ‘survival of the laziest’, or at least ‘survival of the sluggish’.”

The scientists examined 299 species of gastropods, such as snails and slugs, and bivalves, including mussels and scallops, that lived in the Western Atlantic Ocean any time from the Pliocene more than five million years ago to the present day. When the researchers calculated resting metabolic rates for each species, they found that energy use differed markedly for the 178 species that had gone extinct compared with those that live on today. The work is published in Proceedings of the Royal Society B.

“The probable explanation is that things that were more sluggish or lazy had lower energy or food requirements and thus could make do with little when times were bad,” said Lieberman.

The work could help conservationists to better forecast which species are likely to die out first as global climate change hinders food production. The next step is to find out whether metabolism plays a role in the extinction rates of other animals, including those that live on land.

“This result doesn’t necessarily mean that lazy people are the fittest, because alas sometimes those lazy people are the ones that consume the most resources,” Lieberman added. “Humanity’s laziness, when it comes to trying to arrest the changes to the planet we are causing, may be the biggest peril our own species faces.

“But in a nutshell our work indicates that being sluggish can make you more likely to survive. So, here’s to a nap, after we solve our planet’s environmental crisis.”

10 Facts About the Battle of Hastings

The Battle of Hastings is one of the most famous and significant in British history, despite taking place nearly 1,000 years ago. Like so many battles throughout time, it was sparked by one man’s desire to dethrone a king and claim the crown for himself. In this case, that man was a French duke whose victory in the battle was to usher in Norman rule over England. Here are 10 facts about the battle.

1. It was unusually long by medieval standards

Beginning at 9am on 14 October 1066, the battle lasted less than a day and is believed to have been over by nightfall. But although this may seem short by today’s standards, at the time such battles were often over within an hour.

2. It did not actually take place in Hastings

Although it became synonymous with this coastal town in Sussex, the battle actually took place in an area seven miles away. Today, this area is aptly named “Battle”.

3. Fighting was sparked by the arrival in England of William the Conqueror

William, who then held the duchy of Normandy in France, wanted to usurp England’s King Harold II. He believed the English throne had been promised to him by Harold’s predecessor, Edward the Confessor.

4. William had an advantage

The French duke had two weeks in between landing on the Sussex coast and the Battle of Hastings to prepare his forces for a confrontation with the English army. Harold and his troops, on the other hand, had been busy fighting another claimant to the throne in the north of England just three days ahead of William’s arrival. That, coupled with the fact that Harold’s men had to hurry back down south, meant they were battle-weary and exhausted when they began to fight. But despite this, the battle was closely fought.

5. It is not clear how many fighters took part

There is much debate over how many men were put forward by each of the opposing sides, though it is currently thought that both armies had between 5,000 and 7,000 men.

6. The battle was bloody

Thousands of men were killed and both leaders were feared dead at various points. However, it was Harold who eventually succumbed.

7. Harold met a gruesome end

The English king was killed during the final assault by the Normans but accounts differ as to how he actually died. One particularly grisly telling says he was killed when an arrow became lodged in his eye, while another describes how he was hacked to death.

8. The battle has been immortalised in the Bayeux Tapestry

This embroidered cloth, measuring nearly 70 metres in length, depicts scenes from the tale of the Norman conquest of England. The tapestry was made in the 11th century but is remarkably well preserved.

9. Early accounts of the battle rely on two main sources

One is chronicler William of Poitiers and the other is the Bayeux Tapestry. William of Poitiers was a Norman soldier and although he did not fight at the Battle of Hastings himself, it was clear he knew those who had.

10. The battle brought an end to more than 600 years of rule in England by the Anglo-Saxons

In its place came Norman rule and that brought with it many wide-reaching changes, including to language, architecture and English foreign policy.

Who Wrote The Bible?

Set aside what religious tradition says, and discover who wrote the Bible according to the scholars who have examined the actual evidence.

Who Wrote The Bible

HOLY BOOKS HAVE A REACH that goes far beyond what virtually all works of literature can ever accomplish. Unlike, say, The Great Gatsby, the Bible is a text upon which millions and millions of people have based their entire lives.

That fact can be good or bad, and it’s often been both over the many centuries throughout which Christians have been reading the Bible and Jews have been reading the Torah. But given its immense reach and cultural influence, it’s a bit surprising how little we really know about the Bible’s origins. In other words, who wrote the Bible? Of all the mysteries surrounding the Bible, that one may be the most fascinating.

We’re not completely ignorant, of course. Some books of the Bible were written in the clear light of history, and their authorship isn’t terribly controversial. Other books can be reliably dated to a given period by either internal clues — sort of the way no books written in the 1700s mention airplanes, for instance — and by their literary style, which develops over time.

Religious doctrine, of course, holds that God himself is the author of or at least the inspiration for the entirety of the Bible, which was transcribed by a series of humble vessels. About the best that can be said for that notion is that if God really did “write” the Bible through a millennium-long sequence of various authors, he was certainly doing it the hard way.

As for the actual historical evidence regarding who wrote the Bible, that’s a longer story.

Who Wrote The Bible: The First Five Books

Painting Of Moses

According to both Jewish and Christian Dogma, the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy (the first five books of the Bible and the entirety of the Torah) were all written by Moses in about 1,300 B.C. There are a few issues with this, however, such as the lack of evidence that Moses ever existed and the fact that the end of Deuteronomy describes the “author” dying and being buried.

Scholars have developed their own take on who wrote the Bible’s first five books, mainly by using internal clues and writing style. Just as English speakers can roughly date a book that uses a lot of “thee’s” and “thou’s,” Bible scholars can contrast the styles of these early books to create profiles of the different authors.

In each case, these writers are talked about as if they were a single person, but each author could just as easily be an entire school of people writing in a single style. These biblical “authors” include:

  • E: “E” stands for Elohist, the name given to the author(s) who referred to God as “Elohim.” In addition to a fair bit of Exodus and a little bit of Numbers, the “E” author(s) are believed to be the ones who wrote the Bible’s first creation account in Genesis chapter one.Interestingly, however, “Elohim” is plural, so chapter one originally stated that “Gods created the heavens and earth.” It’s believed that this hearkens back to a time when proto-Judaism was polytheistic, though it was almost certainly a one-deity religion by the 900s B.C., when “E” would have lived.
  • J: “J” is believed to be the second author(s) of the first five books (much of Genesis and some of Exodus), including the creation account in Genesis chapter two (the detailed one where Adam is created first and there’s a serpent). This name comes from “Jahwe,” the German translation of “YHWH” or “Yahweh,” the name this author used for God.At one time, J was thought to have lived close to the time of E, but there’s just no way that could be true. Some of the literary devices and turns of phrase that J uses could only have been picked up sometime after 600 B.C., during the Jewish captivity in Babylon.

    For example, “Eve” first appears in J’s text when she is made from the rib of Adam. “Rib” is “ti” in Babylonian, and it’s associated with the goddess Tiamat, the mother deity. A lot of Babylonian mythology and astrology (including the stuff about Lucifer, the Morning Star) snuck into the Bible in this way via the captivity.

Destruction Of Jerusalem

  • P: “P” stands for “Priestly,” and it almost certainly refers to a whole school of writers living in and around Jerusalem in the late sixth century B.C., immediately after the Babylonian captivity ended. These writers were effectively reinventing their peoples’ religion from fragmentary texts now lost.P writers drafted almost all of the dietary and other kosher laws, emphasized the holiness of the Sabbath, wrote endlessly about Moses’ brother Aaron (the first priest in Jewish tradition) to the exclusion of Moses himself, and so on.

    P seems to have written just a few verses of Genesis and Exodus, but virtually all of Leviticus and Numbers. P authors are distinguished from the other writers by their use of quite a lot of Aramaic words, mostly borrowed into Hebrew. In addition, some of the rules attributed to P are known to have been common among the Chaldeans of modern-day Iraq, whom the Hebrews must have known during their exile in Babylon, suggesting that the P texts were written after that period.

King Josiah

  • D: “D” is for “Deuteronomist,” which means: “guy who wrote Deuteronomy.” D was also, like the other four, originally attributed to Moses, but that’s only possible if Moses liked to write in the third person, could see the future, used language no one in his own time would have used, and knew where his own tomb would be (clearly, Moses was not who wrote the Bible at all).D also takes little asides to indicate just how much time has passed between the events described and the time of his writing about them — “there were Canaanites in the land then,” “Israel has not had such a great prophet [as Moses] down to this very day” — once again disproving any notions that Moses was the one who wrote the Bible in any way.

    Deuteronomy was actually written much later. The text first came to light in the tenth year of the reign of King Josiah of Judah, which was roughly 640 B.C. Josiah had inherited the throne from his father at age eight and ruled through the Prophet Jeremiah until he was of age.

    Around 18, the King decided to seize full control of Judah, so he dispatched Jeremiah to the Assyrians with a mission to fetch home the remaining diaspora Hebrews. Then, he ordered a renovation of the Temple of Solomon, where Deuteronomy was supposedly found under the floor — or so Josiah’s story goes.

    Purporting to be a book by Moses himself, this text was a near-perfect match for the cultural revolution that Josiah was leading at the time, suggesting that Josiah orchestrated this “discovery” to serve his own political and cultural ends.

    This is roughly the equivalent of President Trump fishing around in the Liberty Bell and claiming to find an amendment to the Constitution written by Thomas Jefferson that requires presidents to build border walls — even though the supposed amendment uses modern words such as “email” and “cellphone.”

Histories

Joshua Makes The Sun Stand Still

The next answers to the question of who wrote the Bible come from the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, generally believed to have been written during the Babylonian captivity in the middle of the sixth century B.C. Traditionally believed to have been written by Joshua and Samuel themselves, they’re now often lumped in with Deuteronomy due to their similar style and language.

Nevertheless, there is a substantial gap between the “discovery” of Deuteronomy under Josiah in about 640 B.C. and the middle of the Babylonian captivity somewhere around 550 B.C. However, it’s possible that some of the youngest priests who were alive in the time of Josiah were still alive when Babylon hauled off the whole country as captives.

Whether it was these priests of the Deuteronomy era or their successors that wrote Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, these texts represent a highly mythologized history of their newly dispossessed people thanks to the Babylonian captivity.

Who Wrote The Bible Egypt

This history opens with the Hebrews getting a commission from God to leave their Egyptian captivity (which probably resonated with the contemporary readers who had the Babylonian captivity on their minds) and utterly dominate the Holy Land.

The next section covers the age of the great prophets, who were believed to be in daily contact with God, and who routinely humiliated the Canaanites’ deities with feats of strength and miracles.

Finally, the two books of Kings cover the “Golden Age” of Israel, under the kings Saul, David, and Solomon, centered around the tenth century B.C.

The intent of the authors here isn’t hard to parse: Throughout the books of Kings, the reader is assailed with endless warnings not to worship strange gods, or to take up the strangers’ ways — especially relevant for a people in the middle of the Babylonian captivity, freshly plunged into a foreign country and without a clear national identity of their own.

Who Wrote The Bible: Prophets

Prophet Isaiah

The next texts to examine when investigating who wrote the Bible are those of the biblical prophets, an eclectic group who mostly traveled around the various Jewish communities to admonish people and lay curses and sometimes preach sermons about everybody’s shortcomings.

Some prophets lived way back before the “Golden Age” while others did their work during and after the Babylonian captivity. Later, many of books of the Bible attributed to these prophets were largely written by others and were fictionalized to the level of Aesop’s Fables by people living centuries after the events in the books were supposed to have happened, for example:

  • Isaiah: Isaiah was one of the greater prophets of Israel, and the book of the Bible attributed to him is agreed to have been written in basically three parts: early, middle, and late.Early, or “proto-” Isaiah texts may have been written close to the time when the man himself really lived, around the eighth century B.C., about the time when the Greeks were first writing down Homer’s stories. These writings run from chapters one to 39, and they’re all doom and judgment for sinful Israel.

    When Israel actually did fall with the Babylonian conquest and captivity, the works attributed to Isaiah were dusted off and expanded into what’s now known as chapters 40-55 by the same people who wrote Deuteronomy and the historical texts. This part of the book is frankly the ravings of an outraged patriot about how all the lousy, savage foreigners will someday be made to pay for what they’ve done to Israel. This section is where the terms “voice in the wilderness” and “swords into ploughshares” come from.

    Finally, the third part of the book of Isaiah was clearly written after the Babylonian captivity ended in 539 B.C. when the invading Persians permitted the Jews to return home. It’s not surprising then that his section of Isaiah is a burbling tribute to the Persian Cyrus the Great, who is identified as the Messiah himself for letting the Jews return to their home.

Jeremiah The Prophet

  • Jeremiah: Jeremiah lived a century or so after Isaiah, immediately before the Babylonian captivity. The authorship of his book remains relatively unclear, even compared with other discussions as to who wrote the Bible.He may have been one of the Deuteronomist writers, or he may have been one of the earliest “J” authors. His own book may have been written by him, or by a man named Baruch ben Neriah, whom he mentions as one of his scribes. Either way, the book of Jeremiah has a very similar style to Kings, and so it’s possible that either Jeremiah or Baruch simply wrote them all.
  • Ezekiel: Ezekiel ben-Buzi was a priesthood member living in Babylon itself during the captivity.There’s no way he wrote the whole book of Ezekiel himself, given the stylistic differences from one part to the next, but he may have written some. His students/acolytes/junior assistants may have written the rest. These also might have been the writers who survived Ezekiel to draft the P texts after the captivity.

Wisdom Literature

Who Wrote The Bible Job

The next section of the Bible — and the next investigation into who wrote the Bible — deals with what’s known as the wisdom literature. These books are the finished product of nearly a thousand years of development and heavy editing.

Unlike the histories, which are theoretically non-fiction accounts of stuff that happened, wisdom literature has been redacted over the centuries with an extremely casual attitude that has made it hard to pin down any single book to any single author. Some patterns, however, have emerged:

  • Job: The book of Job is actually two scripts. In the middle, it’s a very ancient epic poem, like the E text. These two texts may be the oldest writings in the Bible.On either side of that epic poem in the middle of Job are much more recent writings. It’s as if Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales were to be reissued today with an introduction and epilogue by Stephen King as if the whole thing were one long text.

    Section one of Job contains a very modern narrative of setup and exposition, which was typical of the Western tradition and indicates that this part was written after Alexander the Great swept over Judah in 332 B.C. The happy ending of Job is also very much in this tradition.

    Between these two sections, the list of misfortunes that Job endures, and his tumultuous confrontation with God, are written in a style that would have been around eight or nine centuries old when the beginning and ending were written.

  • Psalms/Proverbs: Like Job, Psalms and Proverbs are also cobbled together from both older and newer sources. For example, some Psalms are written as if there’s a reigning king on the throne in Jerusalem, while others directly mention the Babylonian captivity, during which time there was of course no king on the throne of Jerusalem. Proverbs was likewise continuously updated until about the mid-second century B.C.

Battle Of Issus

  • Ptolemaic Period: The Ptolemaic period began with the Greek conquest of Persia in the late fourth century B.C. Before then, the Jewish people had been doing very well under the Persians, and they were not happy about the Greek takeover.Their main objection seems to have been cultural: Within a few decades of the conquest, Jewish men were flagrantly adopting Greek culture by dressing in togas and drinking wine in public places. Women were even teaching Greek to their children and donations were way down at temple.

    The writings from this time are of a high technical quality, partly thanks to the hated Greek influence, but they also tend to be melancholy, likewise due to the hated Greek influence. Books from this period include Ruth, Esther, Lamentations, Ezra, Nehemiah, Lamentations, and Ecclesiastes.

Who Wrote The Bible: The New Testament

Jesus Delivering Sermon

Finally, the question of who wrote the Bible turns to the texts dealing with Jesus and beyond.

In the second century B.C. with the Greeks still in power, Jerusalem was run by fully Hellenized kings who considered it their mission to erase Jewish identity with full assimilation.

To that end, King Antiochus Epiphanes had a Greek gymnasium built across the street from the Second Temple and made it a legal requirement for Jerusalem’s men to visit it at least once. The thought of stripping nude in a public place blew the minds of Jerusalem’s faithful Jews, and they rose in bloody revolt to stop it.

In time, Hellenistic rule fell apart in the area and was replaced by the Romans. It was during this time, early in the first century A.D., that one of the Jews from Nazareth inspired a new religion, one that saw itself as a continuation of Jewish tradition, but with scriptures of its own:

  • Gospels: The four Gospels in the King James Bible — Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John — tell the story of Jesus’ life and death (and what came after that). These books are named after Jesus’ apostles, although these books’ actual authors may have just been using those names for street cred.The first Gospel to be written may have been Mark, which then inspired Matthew and Luke (John differs from the others). Alternatively, all three may have been based on a now-lost older book known to scholars as Q. Whatever the case, evidence suggests that Acts seems to have been written at the same time (the end of the first century A.D.) and by the same author as Mark.

Paul The Apostle

  • Epistles: The Epistles are a series of letters, written to various early congregations in the eastern Mediterranean, by a single individual. Saul of Tarsus famously converted after an encounter with Jesus on the road to Damascus, after which he changed his name to Paul and became the single most enthusiastic missionary of the new religion. Along the way to his eventual martyrdom, Paul wrote Epistles of James, Peter, Johns, and Jude.
  • Apocalypse: The book of Revelation has traditionally been attributed to the Apostle John.Unlike the other traditional attributions, this one wasn’t very far off in terms of actual historical authenticity, though this book was written a little late for someone who claimed to know Jesus personally. John, of Revelation fame, seems to have been a converted Jew who wrote his vision of the End Times on the Greek island of Patmos about 100 years after Jesus’ death.

While the writings attributed to John actually do show some congruity between who wrote the Bible according to tradition and who wrote the Bible according to historical evidence, the question of Biblical authorship remains thorny, complex, and contested.

Scientist Claim That Women With Big Butts Are Smarter And Healthier

butt4-01A recent study at Oxford University has yielded some interesting results surrounding the size of a woman’s behind. The results suggest that those women with larger butts saw lower risk of having some diseases. Researchers also published results suggesting that these women also tend to be smarter than other women. Let’s look into this a bit more.After studying the results of the test, researches concluded that women with bigger butts had a lower risk of developing diabetes, cardiac conditions and other diseases associated with cholesterol that is ingested and occurring in the body. The women with larger behinds in the study proved to have lower levels of cholesterol meaning that their hormones aided in the burning of sugar more rapidly.

These results left many readers scratching their heads in confusion. It turns out that these women have large reserves of Omega 3 Acids in their bodies. These components are known for helping with better brain function overall. These women benefit from having it naturally.

Konstantinos Manolopoulos, the leader of this study, spoke with reporters from ABC News and discussed the research results. This Greek Professor announced that women who have more fat on their behinds have higher cholesterol and glucose levels than their counterparts.

Leptin is a hormone in the body that helps to regulate weight loss and weight gain. A healthy amount of leptin allows women to sustain a regulated weight throughout the year. The research indicates that women with larger butts have more leptin in their bodies, allowing them to maintain their bodyweight without too much fluctuation. Adiponectin is another hormone released more in larger butts and can help to prevent diabetic issues.

The results from Oxford University have been replicated with very similar results. The Universities of California and Pittsburgh also concluded interesting findings about women with larger behinds. Findings indicate that women with larger butts and thinner waists can expect a longer life than their counterparts.

It turns out that having a big butt actually has some significant health benefits. This feature allows women’s bodies to produce and stores some important and vital minerals that increase the body’s overall health. Don’t let anyone make you feel bad for having a larger behind. You can rest assured that this bigger butt is helping to prevent some awful diseases.

Know someone who’s proud of their big behind? Send them this article and let them know how lucky they truly are!

The menacing looking superyacht ‘Black Swan

 

The’Black Swan’ boat features hidden balconies, an arrow-shaped tip and a pool that fades towards the sea

  • Called Black Swan, the concept yacht would be a floating palace for any billionaire who is bold enough to build it 
  • Stunning vessel features a multi-level pool, spacious sun deck, helipad and hidden balconies with sunloungers 
  • A helicopter platform on the top deck is accessed via a concealed lift, providing quick access to an airport or villa
The Sinister and Sleek Black Swan superyacht is said to be one of the most innovative designers of his generation, Timur Bozca has created a yacht concept made for the Bond villain in you.

The exterior includes a helicopter platform on the top deck, an extensive beach club and a pool. For the interior, a master suite and six guest suites accommodate up to 12 guests.The helicopter platform includes a concealed elevator that will bring guests to the aft deck where they can enjoy the extended beach club.

Two forward balconies are protected by glass railings, offering unobstructed views of the sea or sights in places such as the French Riviera or Caribbean.

A helicopter platform on the top deck is accessed via a concealed lift, allowing the owner and his or her guests to travel between the yacht and the airport or their villa without getting stuck in traffic.

Inside, a master suite and six guest cabins can accommodate 12 people.

Four engines give this superyacht an impressive horsepower rating of 23,172, and allow Black Swan to reach speeds up to 28 knots. At over 200 feet long, this eye-catching vessel is sure to make a statement on the open ocean.

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