Falcon F7

Falcon motorsports have created the F7, a sports coupé that uses a 1100 HP V8 engine. It was created by Detroit-based car enthusiast Jeff Lemke, who has noted the Ford GT as his primary influence. The main star of the show in this car is the engine, which is a Lingenfelter built twin-turbo intercooled V8, which allows it to reach 60 MPH in 2.7 seconds. Elsewhere there’s 20-inch Michelin tires and oversized Brembo carbon ceramic disc brakes. The interior of the car uses handcrafted leather, circular gauges, in-dash iPad mini for music control, and a removable Targa roof.

 

The falcon ‘F7’s’ engine is a lingenfelter built twin turbo inter-cooled V8, that sits exposed through a hole on top of the engine lid behind the driver. power travels through a ricardo six-speed transaxle to 20 inch michelin rear tires, while accelerating to 60 mph takes just 2.7 seconds. the supercar’s ferocious power is escorted by oversized brembo carbon ceramic disc brakes. inside the cockpit a hand-crafted leather interior surrounds occupants, while the dashboard is dominated with circular guages. an in-dash iPad mini offers control of music, and the targa roof can be removed for during those long summer nights.

Falcon F7

Body:
Complete, lightweight carbon fiber/kevlar panel construction. This includes all outer fuselage panels as well as inner and structural panels for maximum weight savings, quality and durability
Chassis Layout:
Lightweight, extremely rigid, Aluminum/Carbon Fiber/Kevlar monocoque chassis
Engine:
Lingenfelter built twin turbo inter-cooled V8 rated at 1100 HP. Includes dry sump oil system
Gearbox:
Heavy duty, high performance 6 speed transaxle with dual disc clutch system
Weight:
2785 lbs
Suspension:
Penske High performance coil over pushrod suspension
Brakes:
Brembo Carbon/ceramic disc brakes, 6 piston 15.5” rotor Front. 4 piston 15” rotor Rear
Wheels/Tires:
Michelin Pilot Super Sport tires
20”forgeline wheels specific for Falcon (10” front 13” rear)
Accessories:
• Leather interior with billet gauge surrounds and knobs
• 4 speaker CD stereo with Bluetooth for hands free calling
• iPad mini in-dash to handle GPS, music library and other systems.
• Air conditioning
• Power windows and key-less ignition
• Removable targa roof panel
Other Key Features:
• Dry sump oil system
• Carbon Fiber dual plenum intake system
• Gasoline swirl tank
• Exposed carbon fiber weave throughout vehicle including underside   of hood, wheel wells, inner doors, deck-lid structure, storage   boxes, sill panels, front spoiler and door sills
• Durable, woven fabric infused composite fuselage
• Lightweight forged aluminum control arms and spindle knuckles at     all wheels
• ISIS wiring and management system
• Integrated roll hoop
• High performance, lightweight adjustable back racing style leather   seats
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Arc Vector Electric Motorcycle

The Arc Vector electric motorcycle made its first public appearance at the Goodwood Festival of Speed.

The Arc Vector will make its first public run at the Goodwood Festival of Speed

Highlights

  • The Arc Vector has a top speed of over 200 kmph
  • 0-100 acceleration in under 3 seconds, and range of 270 km
  • The Arc Vector will be available commercially from 2020

The Arc Vector electric motorcycle, capable of hitting a top speed of over 200 kmph, will make its first public appearance at the Goodwood Festival of Speed from July 4-7 alongside other superbikes and performance motorcycles. Arc founder and CEO Mark Truman will be the person who will ride the Vector on the famed hill climb. The final production model Vector will be powered by a 399V electric motor that churns out close to 140 bhp and 85 Nm of peak torque. It will be a limited edition model and only 355 units will be made for sale.

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The Arc Vector has a top speed of over 200 kmph

“Goodwood is the ideal place for us to show the Vector to the people for the first time. We’ve been testing behind the scenes and now the bike is emerging from the shadows. It is the most amazing thing both to ride and behold. Up to 1,50,000 are expected at the Festival of Speed, and I hope they all get a chance to see what we’ve been working on; a unique, all-electric neo cafe racer with all sorts of kit never before seen.” Said Mark Truman.

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Only 355 units of the Arc Vector will be made and will be available on sale from 2020

Designed and built in England the Arc Vector is described as one of the world’s most advanced electric motorcycle. It’s built around a carbon fibre monocoque, and 0 to 100 kmph acceleration is estimated at 2.7 seconds. Range is claimed at over 270 km on a single charge within the city, and 190 km range for highway riding. The Vector comes with a carbon fibre swingarm, Ohlins suspension and Brembo brakes.

The Vector also comes with a Zenith helmet with built-in head-up display, and the helmet works in conjunction with an Origin riding jacket that features haptic feedback. The haptic alerts can warn the rider of a car approaching from either side, while the helmet displays all necessary infotainment information, and even provides a view from behind the rider. The Arc Vector will be available commercially from the summer of 2020, but the limited edition model won’t be affordable. Each bike is expected to be priced at around ₹ 80 lakh, under current exchange rates.

A.D Tramontana R

 

a.d. Tramontana R

The A.D Tramontana R – Basically a wingless fighter jet !

The design of the Tramontana R, which aside from the Caparo T1 and Hulme F1 Champion, is unlike anything else on the road. The styling borrows many cues from single seat race cars, like the open wheels, prominent side pods and integrated spoilers.The a.d. Tramontana R is a lighter and higher performance version of the standard a.d. Tramontana supercar. Located near Girona in the north east of Spain, a.d. Tramontana intend to produce just one car a month for consumers looking for a car which will instantly stand out from any other supercar.

The body of the Tramonta R is constructed from carbon fibre which is both light and immensely strong. The sinister black and gold color scheme of the Tramontana R shows of the bare carbon fibre weave covering almost the entire body. The gold paintwork has just been used in limited areas to highlight the contours and provide a contrast to the unpainted majority of the bodywork.

On order to work effectively the rear view mirrors jut out from the bodywork like two giant antennas, The mirror housings also feature additional turn signal lights. Under the nose section can be found the front shock absorbers which are laid out horizontally, next to a small cargo compartment.

The radical styling of the Tramontana R was partially influence by modern fighter jets and features a similar canopy style entry system constructed from aluminium. Inside there is a tandem layout in which the passenger sits slightly higher than the driver which allows them some degree of forward visibility. Although the head designer at a.d. Tramontana stated that the passenger should act as a spectator – the car is heavily orientated towards providing the driver with maximum thrills.

The control panel consists of a pair of LCD panels situated behind a smoked black screen. The information displayed can be reconfigured to suit the drivers preferences, offering either basic data like speed and rpms, or more detailed data which could be useful for track sessions. Positioned to the right of the steering wheel is the traction control system which has four different settings. Also located to the left of the steering wheel is the shift mechanism for the six speed sequential transmission.

On either side of the cockpit are large F1-style air intakes which feed cooling air to the water and oil radiators.

At the rear is the motor cover which hides the 5.5 litre V12 sourced from Mercedes-Benz. This engine produces two different power levels. The standard setting gives 550 hp @ 5,000 rpm however at the touch of a button the full 720 hp @ 5,250 rpm can be unleashed and sent through the 6 speed sequential gearbox to the rear wheels. The 0-60 mph sprint takes just 3.6 seconds while the top speed of the Tramontana R is 202 mph.

The gold colored wheels hide giant 380mm carbon ceramic discs which are gripped by six piston Brembo calipers.

Year (of specifications) 2009
Engine 5.5 litre twin turbo V12
Transmission RWD
Max speed 202 mph
0-60 mph 3.6 seconds
Horsepower 720 bhp
weight 1260 kgs / 2777 lbs

 

a.d. Tramontana Ra.d. Tramontana R

a.d. Tramontana R

a.d. Tramontana R

a.d. Tramontana R

a.d. Tramontana R

a.d. Tramontana R interior

Nokia through the years: 34 best and worst phones, in pictures

Nokia is back. The brand is being used on phones again after Microsoft retired it on its own devices a couple of years ago.

Finnish manufacturer HMD Global Oy is releasing new Nokia handsets, this time loaded with Android, and we’re extremely happy to see the famous label once again back where it belongs. It is even tipped to be announcing a refresh of the amazing, classic 3310. Huzzah!

To celebrate, we’ve handpicked some of our favourite Nokia mobile phones from the last 30 years or so. We’ve also chucked in some stinkers too.

So here are the best and, frankly, worst and weirdest Nokia handsets we all remember, as we look forward to the Android Nokia phones of the future.

Nokia 3310 (Any Network) Working Handset Blue Very Popular - *FREE POST*

Perhaps the most iconic of all Nokia handsets, the 3310 was the phone that really took the interchangeable covers craze to all-new levels. It was also a hardy device – we know as we accidentally lobbed a fair few of them across car parks and down streets, but they continued to work.

Image result for Nokia 6310 (2001)

Business types loved the 6310 and 6310i (and the similar looking 6210 before them). It was more professional looking than the 3310, but still offered a degree of customisation in an interchangeable plate at the bottom. The “i” version added a backlit screen and tri-band connectivity.

Image result for Nokia Lumia 1020 (2013)

Described as a Windows Phone 8-powered cameraphone, the 1020 notably featured a PureView Pro camera with a 41-megapixel image sensor. It was also the last Nokia phone made before Microsoft announced it would acquire Nokia’s phone business.

Image result for Nokia 808 Pureview (2012)

The 808 was Nokia’s last Symbian-powered smartphone. It was also the first phone to feature Nokia’s PureView Pro technology.

Image result for Nokia 6310 (2001)

Despite a clear demand for everything smart, Nokia went ahead with this affordable ultrabasic dual-band GSM mobile phone… in 2010.

Image result for Nokia N-Gage (2002)

The N-Gage was Nokia’s attempt to win over GameBoy users. It was a gaming device and mobile phone in one, though gamers scoffed at the phone and described it as looking like a taco.

Image result for Nokia N95 (2007)

Coming with Wi-Fi, Bluetooth and 3G connectivity, the Nokia N95 was a truly “smart” phone for its day. The battery took some bashing however, thanks to all the tech crammed inside, and it needed charging often.

Image result for Nokia N81 (2007)

The N81 was marketed as a mobile gaming device – similar to the N-Gage – and was notable for being the only N-Gage 2.0 device with special gaming keys.

Image result for Nokia 5300 (2006)

The 5300 was reportedly the most popular (in regards to the number of units sold) of all the XpressMusic phones, a line of Nokia phones that was designed for music playback.

Image result for Nokia N70 (2005)

 

The N70 was a 3G mobile phone. It was announced as part of Nokia’s brand new line of N-series multimedia phones.

Image result for Nokia 6280 (2005) NOKIA

The 6280 was another 3G mobile phone. It had a slide form factor and 2.2-inch colour TFT screen.

Image result for Nokia 3250 (2005)

The 3250 was a unique mobile phone that featured a twist design, traditional phone keypad, camera, and dedicated music control keys.

Image result for Nokia 1100 (2005)

The 1100 was a basic GSM mobile phone. Nokia claimed in 2011 that the phone was once owned by 250 million people, making it the world’s most popular phone at that time.

Image result for Nokia 8800 (2005)

The 8800 was a slider phone. It was different in that it had a stainless-steel housing and a scratch-resistant screen.

Image result for Nokia N90 (2005)

The N90 was another phone under the N-series but stood out for its swivel design that transformed the device into four different modes.

Image result for Nokia 7710 (2005)

The 7710 was a smartphone widely known as being Nokia’s first device with a touchscreen.

Image result for Nokia 7280 (2004)

The 7280 was also called the “lipstick” phone. Announced as part of Nokia’s Fashion Phone line, it had black, white and red styling as well as a screen that transformed it into a mirror.

Image result for Nokia 7600 (2004)

The 7600 had a teardrop form factor. It was aimed at the fashion market and featured interchangeable covers.

Image result for Nokia 3300 (2003)

The 3300 was marketed as music playing phone but also featured a QWERTY keyboard.

Image result for Nokia 5100 (2002)

The 5100 was a rugged device with a rubber casing and built-in FM stereo.

Image result for Nokia 6800 (2002)

The 6800 was marketed as a messaging phone because of its unusual fold-out QWERTY keyboard.

Image result for Nokia 3600/3650 (2002)

The 3600/3650 was also the first phone in North America with an integrated camera. It was also different due to its circular keypad.

Image result for Nokia 5510 (2001)

The 5510 featured a full QWERTY keyboard and a digital music player. It even had 64MB memory for storing audio files. Tonnes of room, right?

Image result for Nokia 7650 (2001)

The 7650 was the first Nokia smartphone with Symbian OS.

Image result for Nokia 8210 (1999)

The 8210 was the smallest and lightest Nokia mobile phone available when it launched and reintroduced colourful, interchangeable covers.

Image result for Nokia7110 (1999)

 

The 7110 is nicknamed “The Swordfish Phone” because it was used by actor John Travolta in the film Swordfish. It was also the first mobile phone to come with a WAP browser.

Image result for Nokia 3210 (1999)

The 3210 was notable because it introduced the idea of colourful, interchangeable covers. There are claims over 160 million units were sold, making it one of the most popular and successful phones in history.

Image result for Nokia 5110 (1998)

The 5110 was made with business-consumers in mind, though it’s most remembered today for being one of the first phones to feature an addictive game: Snake.

Image result for Nokia 9000 Communicator (1996)

The 9000 Communicator was a messaging phone and the first phone under the Communicator series. It is famous for being used by actor Val Kilmer in the remake of The Saint as well as by actors Anthony Hopkins and Chris Rock in the film Bad Company.

Image result for Nokia 8110 (1996)

The 8110 gained notoriety as being the first phone with a slider form factor, but the design’s prominent curvature earned it the nickname “banana phone”.

Image result for Nokia 1011 (1993)

The 1011 is famous for being the first mass-produced GSM phone.

Image result for Nokia Cityman (1987)

The Cityman was one of the first compact phones. It became famous in 1987 when Mikhail Gorbachev, then-president of the Soviet Union, used a Cityman 900 to call Moscow during a press conference.

Image result for Nokia Mobira Talkman (1985)

From 1985 to 1992, Nokia manufactured the Mobira Talkman line of crazy-large cell phones you could carry with you (if your arms were strong enough to lift the massive block/suitcase attached to the phone).

Image result for Nokia 6 (2017)

The Nokia 6 marks the long-awaited return of the brand to the mobile sphere. Already available in China but coming to Europe in 2017, the 5.5-inch Full HD Android phone will be squarely aimed at the budget conscious.

Peaky Blinders Customised Lambretta Li125

Sex, drugs and ragtime music – Paul Douglas’ tribute to the hit TV series shows this unlikely combination translates into metal just as well as it does to the small screen.

You can change what you do, but you can’t change what you want

The man behind Peaky Blinders is Paul Douglas, who’s lucky enough to earn his living as the manager of a motorcycle dealership. With a lifelong love of scooters and access to some of the most powerful motorcycles on sale to the general public, it was only natural that he’d want to combine the two at some point.

‘Just enough’ spatter.

“The original plan was to build a Guy Martin themed custom,” explained Paul. “At the advance planning stage I realised it had already been done and to a very high standard. There was no point repeating that so I needed to rethink.

Blood will cause confusion if Paul ever takes a tumble!

“Although I’ve owned and built several customs over the years they’ve been mainly street racers and I was determined that this build would be a full blown muralled machine. Once I’d made that decision, to go with a Peaky Blinders theme, which is one of my favourite TV shows, was the obvious choice.

 

Set in Birmingham during the aftermath of the First World War, Peaky Blinders tells the story of the Shelby family and is multi-layered. On the surface it’s a straightforward and often violent gangland drama but look a little deeper and there are many sub plots including the damage inflicted to those who fought in the conflict, the breakdown of the British class system, women’s rights and political intrigue.

Although it received critical acclaim from the outset I must admit that before the photoshoot for this article it had bypassed me completely. If you’ve missed the TV show, starring Cillian Murphy, I’d strongly recommend it but be warned — it’s addictive and I’m not certain my wife was convinced that I needed to watch all three series back to back as research for this article…

 

When you plan something well, there’s no need to rush

For decades, Series 1 and 2 Lambrettas were regarded as the ugly cousins of the slimstyle model. More recently their ample curves and distinctive road presence have found a keen following, meaning that good examples are increasingly hard to find at a reasonable price. Paul said the basis for Peaky Blinders was particularly uninspiring: “One of the sales reps mentioned that he’d acquired a Series 2 frame and after a lot of nagging on my part he agreed to part with it. Then I gathered together the panel work and other components.

With the engine contracted out to tuning supremo Darrell Taylor and after the base coat had been applied by Paul Firth, it was to a local contact that Paul turned to for murals. “One of the best artists at the moment is Kev Thomas and he was my only choice for Peaky Blinders.”

 

Get yourself a decent haircut man, we’re going to the races

Having worked in the motor trade for most of his life Kev, based in Doncaster, has huge experience of vehicle refinishing but has only recently turned to airbrush work: “I was clearing out the garage a couple of years ago and found an airbrush that my son had got bored with. I tried my hand with it and was pleased with the results. My first commission was a helmet and things have grown from there. Paul’s shop took in a Judge Dredd themed Suzuki that I’d sprayed and he was impressed enough to get in touch and commission his Guy Martin theme.

Splash plate and rear mudguard by K2 before fitting

“I’d got to the stage of producing advanced mock-ups for the design when Paul got in touch to say that he wanted a Peaky Blinders scheme. I couldn’t have been happier as it’s my favourite show and I knew exactly how it should look.” Unfortunately there was a slight difference of opinion when he outlined his plans to Paul in greater detail.

“We both agreed that it should be in monochrome but Paul only wanted to feature the brothers whereas I was convinced that it should tell the whole story and that other characters should be included.” Fortunately the pair came to an agreement and in Paul’s own words, “Kev’s done a fantastic job, the best I’ve seen.” Show judges seem to agree with Peaky Blinders taking ‘Punters Choice’ and four second places at its debut in Bridlington last year.

 

You’ve got to get what you want in your own way

With engine and paint under way Paul turned his attention to the fine details. “I’ve used Keith Newman’s K2 Custom Classics on several projects,” said Paul. “The quality and standard of service are second to none.” With Peaky Blinders as the theme there’s an obvious motif to use – the classic razor blade. Sewn into their cap peaks the humble razor blade gave the gang both their name and principle weapon of offence. From the rear mudguard to horncast badge via tap and choke levers K2’s accessories bring a sense of menace to the design with the polished stainless steel complementing the predominantly monochrome paintwork perfectly. Spattered across the design are splashes of red, blood red. Red seat covers lift the design perfectly. “Originally I’d planned for black seats,” said Paul. “They just didn’t look right though. I wasn’t convinced that red would work either but I’m very pleased with the result.”

Central image is so lifelike I wouldn’t be surprised if it looked up.

Bringing the whole project together was Chris Swift. A ‘hobby’ scooter mechanic, Swifty is the only man Paul trusts to bring his scooter dreams to life – high praise indeed from a motorcycle industry professional. Although he’s the owner and builder of several custom scooters Paul is a reluctant showman and at Bridlington he actually denied being Peaky Blinders’ owner to avoid too many questions! “Although the scooters are based on my ideas I can’t take all the credit as they’re a team effort,” he says.

On thing’s for certain Peaky Blinders is a stunning tribute to the shown – even Thomas Shelby would struggle to take offence.

 

 

MAN & MACHINE

Name: Paul Douglas

Job: Motorcycle sales manager

Scooter club & town: Rotherham SC

How and when did you first become interested in scooters: I think all 14-year-olds in 1979 were influenced by Quadrophenia – following the older lads who had scooters, trying to fit in with parkas and suede boots – good days.

First scooter: GP150.

Favourite scooter model: SX200.

Favourite style of custom scooter: Anything that just says time spent on it.

Any stories: Riding behind my mate Hodgy we took a corner too fast and came across a humpback bridge with no time to slow down. The scooters were all over the place before we both came off. Hodgy couldn’t stop laughing.

Favourite and worst rally/event: Favourite is Bridlington, worst is Mablethorpe.

Superb detailing courtesy of K2 Custom Classics.

What’s the furthest you’ve ever ridden a scooter: Whitby, very cold.

What do you like about rallies/events: Seeing all the custom scooters and I enjoy the night life but get sent home early – I’m not good at drinking!

What do you dislike about rallies/events: Moaners.

Still to add at the time of our photoshoot were panel handles made by K2 in the form of cut-throat razors.

Your favourite custom/featured scooter of all time: Top Gun.

If you had to recommend one scooter part or item of riding kit what would it be: Best helmet you can afford.

What’s the most useless part you’ve ever bought for one of your scooters: Stainless steel runner board protectors.

Paul was fortunate to secure straight, rot-free panelwork.

Name of scooter: Peaky Blinders

Scooter model: Lambretta Li125

Date purchased & cost: £1400 for spares.

Time to build & by who: Once we got all the bits together it took Chris Swift about three months but it was started 18 months ago just gathering parts.

Engine spec: Kit: Monza, Crank: 60mm, Carb: Dellorto, Exhaust: TT, Porting & Dyno by: Darrell Taylor.

Paintwork & murals done by: Base coat by Paul Firth and murals by Kev Thomas – fantastic job.

Is there any powdercoating: By Keith Newman at K2.

Is there any chrome: Quality Chrome Hull.

What was the hardest part of the project: Getting all the bits to fit!

Do you have any advice for anyone starting a project: Always dry build first!

Is there anyone you wish to thank: Chris Swift for putting up with all the crap I bought while he was doing the build. Kev Thomas for the best paint job I’ve seen. Paul Firth, Keith Newman, Stuart Gulliver, Ernie Richardson, and, of course, my wife.

PAINTING A BLINDER

If you’ve never heard of Kev Thomas don’t worry, such is his reputation that he’s not needed to advertise for many years. Although full resprays still pay the bills, Key is devoting an increasing amount of his time to custom work. A self-taught airbrush artist, his preferred technique is a mixture of freehand work and careful masking.

Facebook: Keys Custom Paints. Email: kevscustompaints@gmail.com

A ‘flat’ produced by Kev of the Shelby Brothers. “Although there’s a lot of space on a scooter for murals there are very few flat surfaces. Every image needs to be distorted in order to look convincing.”
“I draw the main components on water based masking tape by hand and then peel away layer by layer until it’s time to add fine details freehand.”
“I start by printing off the images I’m going to use and positioning them on the scooter. Once th design is finalised I use them as reference, first to produce a pencil drawing and then to fill in detail.”
“Each of the images is painted individually and then masked off, enabling me to build up the effect piece by piece.”
“Once all the murals are in place I apply around seven coats of lacquer, producing an exceptionally smooth finish.”

Words: Stan

Photos: Gary Chapman

Words of wisdom: Thomas Shelby

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2019 Dodge Barracuda

2019 Dodge Barracuda is highly expected to be the next big muscle car on the block, as many muscle car enthusiasts have already started comparing it to the SRT Challenger. It is quite difficult to say whether or not the new Barracuda car will perform better than the Challenger will. However, one thing is certain that the chance of a new muscle car production begins, is always good to hear. If you are looking to buy a luxury sports car, then you might consider waiting for this 2019 Barracuda.

2019 Dodge Barracuda Design

The Barracuda 2019 an upgraded interior and exterior that the Challenger. Thus, the new car will not only look good on the outside, but it will also feel good inside too. However, it is not easy to decode Auto her first impressions, as it seems to attract design elements of the Challenger SRT itself. Although basic sketches and renderings were made public to date, a clay model 2019 Dodge Barracuda has yet to be unveiled. Dodge is determined to design a luxury sports car and muscle if it is, then it’s just a bonus. It is expected that 2019 Barracuda proved aerodynamics and better quality materials.

2019 Dodge Barracuda Interior

Inside 2019 Barracuda is well designed, the introduction of a large number of features and design components, new to the world of our conventional muscles. Particular attention was paid to the aspects of safety and luxury, which emphasize the positive aspects of this vehicle. All this should help drivers remain comfortable when driving the 2019 Dodge Barracuda, even at high speeds.

2019 Dodge Barracuda Engine

2019 Dodge Barracuda get the power of a range of engine blocks, including the Pentastar V-6 and 5.7-liter HEMI V-8 option. This power unit is capable of generating 600 B Horsepower, which will be a huge performance gain for any car of this category. Compared with the Challenger, fuel economy off Barracuda 2019 should be better because of a large number of technical additions.

2019 Dodge Barracuda Price and release date

The price and Dodge Barracuda 2019 release date have not been made public by the manufacturers. Some rumors say that the launch date will be somewhere around 2019 and it will cost more than $ 60,000. However, potential buyers could expect to get something better than what they have achieved in the previous version of Barracuda.

Alzheimer’s and the link to applying deodorant.

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Most men put little to no effort into finding the best deodorants for their body, Smelling good certainly plays a vital role in our everyday affairs so does killing bacteria and reducing odor and sweat. But their is a myth that the aluminum from cans, can cause cancer.

The ability of metals from food or cookware to cause Alzheimer’s disease is a regular concern in the news. Here’s the evidence behind the presence of metals such as copper, zinc, iron and aluminium.

Can certain metals increase my risk of developing dementia?

At present, there is no strong evidence to support the fears that coming in to contact with metals through using equipment or through food or water increases your risk of developing Alzheimer’s disease.

However, there are many other metals that are present naturally in the brain.

What does the research say?

The current research shows that there is likely to be a relationship between naturally-occurring metals and the development or progression of Alzheimer’s disease. But the evidence doesn’t yet show whether this relationship actually causes Alzheimer’s disease.

It is also unclear whether reducing metals in the brain via drugs or reducing our exposure would have any effect. These metals are essential to the healthy function of our brain, so further research into changes before or during disease development is also necessary to understand if reducing the amount in the brain would actually be beneficial.

Origin of the myth

The myth that deodorant causes cancer has been circulated via emails, on websites, and even in newspapers.  The story varies from source to source, but contains some or all of the following elements:

  • Aluminium-containing antiperspirants prevent toxins from being expelled by the body.  These toxins clog up lymph nodes around the armpits and breasts and cause breast cancer.
  • The aluminium in deodorants is absorbed by the skin. It affects the blood brain barrier and has been linked with the onset of Alzheimer’s disease.
  • The risk is higher for women who apply deodorant after shaving.  This is because nicks in the skin increase absorption of aluminium and other chemicals.

Metals and the body

Naturally-occurring metals and Alzheimer’s disease

Metals such as zinc, copper and iron are present naturally in our bodies. Small amounts of these metals are essential to keeping our brains and bodies working properly. They are involved in many different processes including energy production, the movement of oxygen and the creation and management of many important molecules in the body.

Metals within food

Along with these essential metals, there are other metals that we are exposed to through things such as food.

The body is able to tolerate these metals in small amounts by clearing through the kidneys. These include aluminium and lead, for example it has been shown that if they are not taken out by the kidneys through organ failure or by exposure to extremely high doses these metals are able to deposit in the brain.

These metals are known to cause negative effects in the brain and have been implicated in several neurological conditions.

Copper, zinc and iron

Copper has been the most extensively studied of the natural metals in the brain, but there have also been several studies on exposure to excess zinc and iron among others.

High levels of iron were first reported in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease in 1953. Since that time it has been shown that iron, as well as zinc and copper are associated with the hallmark Alzheimer’s proteins amyloid and tau in the brain.

These hallmark proteins appear as clumps called amyloid plaques and tau tangles in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s and are thought to cause damage.

Laboratory experiments using cells in a dish or animal models have shown that copper, zinc and iron can cause the development of these plaques and tangles. However, this doesn’t necessarily mean they cause disease.

Zinc has actually been shown to reduce the toxic effect of the amyloid plaques by changing the amyloid proteins into a shape that is less harmful to the brain.

Reactive oxygen species

Copper and iron, but not zinc, have also been implicated in the development of something called ‘reactive oxygen species’ (ROS) in the brain. These are oxygen molecules that have been altered by a chemical reaction. Increased levels are known to be damaging, contributing to cell ageing and death. This is why antioxidants, which can clear up these ROS, are thought to be beneficial to general health.

ROS are believed to be an early contributor to the mechanisms underlying Alzheimer’s disease development. Increased levels have been seen in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s and toxic amyloid has been shown to increase ROS production.

Conversely, zinc has been shown to protect against ROS by binding to amyloid protein in the place of copper, which reduces the creation of these reactive oxygen species.

The management of the levels of these and other naturally occurring metals is very tightly controlled by the body. It includes many different molecules and disruption of these processes can occur for various reasons. It is not yet clear if the increase in metals seen in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s causes the disease. However, it does appear that there is a relationship between the naturally occurring metals and Alzheimer’s disease.

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Aluminium

In 1965, researchers found that rabbits injected with an extremely high dose of aluminium developed toxic tau tangles in their brains. This led to speculation that aluminium from cans, cookware, processed foods and even the water supply could be causing dementia. The ability of this high dose aluminium to induce tau tangles, increase amyloid levels and contribute to the development of plaques has been shown in laboratory experiments on animals.

Importantly, these results were only seen with extremely high exposures that far exceed the levels that can enter the body through food or potentially through contact with aluminium cookware.

Since this study was reported, much research has been done on the relationship of aluminium and Alzheimer’s disease. As yet no study or group of studies has been able to confirm that aluminium is involved in the development of Alzheimer’s disease.

Aluminium is seen in the normal, healthy brain. It is not clear how aluminium is getting into the brain from the blood. The levels currently seen in peoples brains hasn’t been shown to be toxic but an ageing brain may be less able to process the aluminium. Although aluminium has been seen in amyloid plaques there is no solid evidence that aluminium is increased in the brains of people with Alzheimer’s disease. No convincing relationship between amount of exposure or aluminium in the body and the development of Alzheimer’s disease has been established.

Aluminium in food and drink is in a form that is not easily absorbed in to the body. Hence the amount taken up is less than 1% of the amount present in food and drink. Most of the aluminium taken into the body is cleaned out by the kidneys. Studies of people who were treated with contaminated dialysis have shown an increase in the amount of aluminium in the brain. This was believed to be as a result of inadequately monitored dialysis which then led to encephalopathy related dementia. Methods of dialysis have since been improved and doctors are better able to predict and prevent this form of dementia.

One large recent study did find a potential role for high dose aluminium in drinking water in progressing Alzheimer’s disease for people who already have the disease.

However, multiple other small and large scale studies have failed to find a convincing causal association between aluminium exposure in humans and Alzheimer’s disease.

CMSRI-Infographic-4-Risk-Factors-for-Alzheimers-061317-Update

Treatments

The idea that metals could be contributing to Alzheimer’s disease has led researchers to study the effects of drugs which remove or inactivate metals in the brain on disease progression. To date, several different drugs have been trialled to see if they can remove excess copper or zinc from the brain or the amyloid plaques.

Many of these drugs have shown positive results in human trials on either reducing plaques and/or cognitive decline. However, as yet, none of these drugs have been approved for use in people due to significant side effects such as severe headaches, renal failure, or life threatening low calcium, among others. Research in to this potential treatment is ongoing.

Current evidence

The Journal of The National Cancer Institute published a study in 2002 exploring the relationship between breast cancers and antiperspirants or deodorants in 1606 women.  The findings did not show an increased risk of cancer amongst deodorant or antiperspirant users, or amongst women who shaved before using deodorant or antiperspirant.

Another small case control study, in 2006 found that 82% of the controls (women without breast cancer) and 52% of cases (women with breast cancer) used antiperspirants, indicating that using the under arm product might protect against breast cancer. While the study is too small to make such a claim, it certainly does not support the ‘antiperspirants cause cancer’ story.

Furthermore, antiperspirants work by aluminium salts blocking sweat glands, not lymph nodes.  Although lymph nodes do remove toxins, they do not remove them by sweating.  Most carcinogens are removed through the liver or kidneys and excreted out.  It is also pertinent to note that breast cancer starts in the breast and spreads to the lymph nodes, not the other way around.

Studies show that there is no relationship between antiperspirant use and Alzheimer’s disease. Humans are exposed to aluminium from food, packaging, pans, water, air and medicines.  From the aluminium we are exposed to, only minute amounts are absorbed, and these are usually excreted or harmlessly stored in bone.  At any one time, the average human body contains much less aluminium than an antacid tablet.  The Alzheimer’s Society states that the link between environmental Aluminium and Alzheimer’s disease seems increasingly unlikely.

Reputable organisations like the American National Cancer Institute, Cancer Research UK, the American Cancer Society and most other major authorities suggest the link between deodorant or antiperspirant use and breast cancer is unconfirmed, or simply a myth.

It is impossible to ignore when researching this question that the large majority of the research articulating the possible link between underarm cosmetics and breast cancer comes from one research group.  And it seems despite the absence of evidence to support the link, their search to prove the theory persists.

Summary

There is insufficient evidence to support the myth that applying deodorant or antiperspirant after shaving will increase the risk of cancer, as demonstrated by the 2002 study mentioned above. The American Cancer Society (ACS) states that the main risk related to using theses products is that they can cause skin irritation if a razor nick or cut is infected.