How to : Make furniture out of pallets.

Wood pallets have been around for decades as mechanisms for shipping and storing larger items (among other things). Recently, however, wooden pallets have become much more than a once-and-done packaging piece. They’ve become a useful resource in home décor and design.Used by beginner to professional DIYers in projects from wall coverings to large and small furniture pieces to home décor accessories, wood pallets can be disassembled into wood planks that can be used for any number of projects. The wood can be like new, rustic with patina, or somewhere in between. And, best of all (to the DIY world, at least), is their price: Free!

 

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 Now we have brought something to brighten up and increase your creativity about using pallet wood. You can take a look on all detailed projects of pallet wood which are magnificently designed to match modern terms of fashion and trend with layout and decoration as well.

If you’re able to find unusually colored or stained pallets, you can use them to create an exotic-looking coffee table like this one. This particular coffee table almost mimics a table from Marrakech, although it was made from pallets found near a metro shopping area. It has a simple design and a very nice color combination. The table also features two small drawers for storage.

diy-shipping-pallet-bookshelf-and-bike-rack

Because of their structure, pallets can be easily used to create bookshelves without much modification. Just place the pallet along the wall, secure it, and add some shelves here and there. Paint it in a vibrant color if you want to, and of course add the books. Done and done. Moreover, you can also use the structure as a bike rack, as shown in the picture.

How to : Set up a Record Turntable.

How to properly calibrate your turntable, saving you from hours of heartache when you plough your records like a field…

How to : Build a bookshelf chair.

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Materials:

2 sheets of 3/4 plywood boards that come in 4 X 8 ( bought more expensive plywood for around $40 per sheet)

6 X 8ft of 2 x1 inch pine strips

4 x 8ft of 2 x 2 inch pine

2 boxes of 1 1/4″ Kreg pocket screws

1 bottle Gorilla wood glue

Started by creating a base that is cut out of 4×8 sheet of plywood and built sides by using 2 x 2-inch pine.

Incredible Tutorial How To Build A Bookshelf Chair

Sides are 29″ tall.

Build the foundation

In between 2 x 2’s he used 2 x 1-inch pieces of pine.
To secure 2 x 2 and 2 x 1 pieces to plywood platform, he used Gorilla glue and Kreg pocket screws.

Create support

he used more 2 x 1-inch pine to create support for a first story piece of plywood and secured it with pocket screws and wood glue

Incredible Tutorial How To Build A Bookshelf Chair

First floor

Incredible Tutorial How To Build A Bookshelf Chair

Seating area and sides

He started with upper bookshelf slots with 2 x2 in pines. To secure them he used the same method of Kreg pocket screws and wood glue. The seating area is 28.5″ long and 26″ wide.

Incredible Tutorial How To Build A Bookshelf Chair

Bookshelf sides

how pocket screws were used to interlock each piece of 2×2 pine to each other.

Incredible Tutorial How To Build A Bookshelf Chair

Incredible Tutorial How To Build A Bookshelf Chair

Back same as sides

View of the back as it was built using 2×2

Incredible Tutorial How To Build A Bookshelf Chair

Slowly coming together with sides and back

He cuts out the plywood to fill in support for the all top three sides of the bookshelf chair. He used clamps to secure it better to the seating area while wood glue dried. And here is the completed unpainted bookshelf chair

Incredible Tutorial How To Build A Bookshelf Chair

Next comes the painting

Incredible Tutorial How To Build A Bookshelf Chair

Finally, cushions and books

The cushions where hand made.

Bookshelf Chair final measurements are 41.5″ wide by 34.5″ long and 29″ tall.

 

How Differential Gear works

The differential is an integral part of all four wheelers. Differential technology was invented centuries ago and is considered to be one of the most ingenious inventions human thinking has ever produced. In this video, we will learn, in a logical manner, why a differential is needed in an automobile and its inner workings as well as How the automobile differential allows a vehicle to turn a corner while keeping the wheels from skidding.

Why the Differential gear is used?

Wheels receive power from the engine via a drive shaft. The wheels that receive power and make the vehicle move forward are called the drive wheels. The main function of the differential gear is to allow the drive wheels to turn at different rpms while both receiving power from the engine.

power flow in automobileFig.1 Power from the engine is flowed to the wheels via a drive shaft

Consider these wheels, which are negotiating a turn. It is clear that the left wheel has to travel a greater distance compared to the right wheel.

Wheels taking right turnFig.2 While taking a right turn the left wheel has to travel more distance; this means more speed to left wheel

This means that the left wheel has to rotate at a higher speed compared to the right wheel. If these wheels were connected using a solid shaft, the wheels would have to slip to accomplish the turn. This is exactly where a differential comes in handy. The ingenious mechanism in a differential allows the left and right wheels to turn at different rpms, while transferring power to both wheels.

Parts of a Differential

We will now learn how the differential achieves this in a step-by-step manner using the simplest configuration. Power from the engine is transferred to the ring gear through a pinion gear. The ring gear is connected to a spider gear.

spider and ring gearFig.3 Motion from the pinion gear is transferred to the spider gear

The spider gear lies at the heart of the differential, and special mention should be made about its rotation. The spider gear is free to make 2 kinds of rotations: one along with the ring gear (rotation) and the second on its own axis (spin).

motion of spider gearFig.4 Spider gear is free to make 2 kinds of rotations

The spider gear is meshed with 2 side gears. You can see that both the spider and side gears are bevel gears. Power flow from the drive shaft to the drive wheels follows the following pattern. From the drive shaft power is transferred to the pinion gear first, and since the pinion and ring gear are meshed, power flows to the ring gear. As the spider gear is connected with the ring gear, power flows to it. Finally from the spider gear, power gets transferred to both the side gears.

the complete differentialFig.5 The basic components of a standard differential

Differential Operation

Now let’s see how the differential manages to rotate the side gears (drive wheels) at different speeds as demanded by different driving scenarios.

The vehicle moves straight

In this case, the spider gear rotates along with the ring gear but does not rotate on its own axis. So the spider gear will push and make both the side gears turn, and both will turn at the same speed. In short, when the vehicle moves straight, the spider-side gear assembly will move as a single solid unit.

differential when vehicle moves straightFig.6 While the vehicle moves straight, the spider gear does not spin; it pushes and rotate the side gears

The vehicle takes a right turn

Now consider the case when the vehicle is taking a right turn. The spider gear plays a pivotal role in this case. Along with the rotation of the ring gear it rotates on its own axis. So, the spider gear is has a combined rotation. The effect of the combined rotation on the side gear is interesting.

differential when vehicle turns rightFig.7 To get peripheral velocity at left and right side of spider gear we have to consider both rotation and spin of it

When properly meshed, the side gear has to have the same peripheral velocity as the spider gear. Technically speaking, both gears should have the same pitch line velocity. When the spider gear is spinning as well as rotating, peripheral velocity on the left side of spider gear is the sum of the spinning and rotational velocities. But on the right side, it is the difference of the two, since the spin velocity is in the opposite direction on this side. This fact is clearly depicted in Fig.7. This means the left side gear will have higher speed compared to the right side gear. This is the way the differential manages to turn left and right wheels at different speeds.

The vehicle takes a left turn

While taking a left turn, the right wheel should rotate at a higher speed. By comparing with the previous case, it is clear that, if the spider gear spins in the opposite direction, the right side gear will have a higher speed.

differential when vehicle turns leftFig.8 While taking left turn the spider gear spins in opposite direction

Use of more Spider gears

In order to carry a greater load, one more spider gear is usually added. Note that the spider gears should spin in opposite directions to have the proper gear motion. A four-spider-gear arrangement is also used for vehicles with heavy loads. In such cases, the spider gears are connected to ends of a cross bar, and the spider gears are free to spin independently.

use of two spider gearsFig.9 Double spider gear arrangement is usually used to carry more loads

Other functions of the Differential

Apart from allowing the wheels to rotate at different rpm differential has 2 more functions. First is speed reduction at the pinion-ring gear assembly. This is achieved by using a ring gear which is having almost 4 to 5 times number of teeth as that of the pinion gear. Such huge gear ratio will bring down the speed of the ring gear in the same ratio. Since the power flow at the pinion and ring gear are the same, such a speed reduction will result in a high torque multiplication.

You can also note one specialty of the ring gear, they are hypoid gears. The hypoid gears have more contact area compared to the other gear pairs and will make sure that the gear operation is smooth.

The other function of the differential is to turn the power flow direction by 90 degree.

Drawback of a Standard Differential

The differential we have gone through so far is known as open or standard differential. It is capable of turning the wheels at different rpm, but it has got one major drawback. Consider a situation where one wheel of the vehicle is on a surface with good traction and the other wheel on a slippery track.

wheels on different tractionFig.10 A standard differential vehicle on different traction surfaces will not be able to move

In this case a standard differential will send the majority of the power to the slippery wheel, so the vehicle won’t be able to move. To overcome this problem, Limited Slip Differentials are introduced. We will learn more about them in a separate article.

For further reading on this subject :https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Differential_(mechanical_device)

 

This Bourbon Cough Syrup Is An Awesome Home Remedy For The Flu

Winter is at it’s peak right now. People prefer to buy expensive cold medicine to get rid of that nasty cold and cough. But when you’re suffering from a bad cold, it doesn’t help much.

You need something strong to cure such a disgusting cough. Ordinary cough syrup can’t help enough but bourbon cough syrup is an excellent remedy for grown-ups which doesn’t have any side effects.

1 All you need is bourbon, lemon juice and honey.

2 You can also add a little hot water to the mixture if it’s too strong.

 3 If you have a low alcohol tolerance, use hot lemon juice instead.

4 Simple ingredients are needed to prepare Bourbon Cough Syrup.

These are the ingredients needed to prepare Bourbon Cough Syrup-
2 ounces bourbon whisky, 1/2 lemon juiced (about 2 ounces), 2-4 ounces water (optional) and 1 tablespoon honey.

5 Mix bourbon, lemon juice, and water in a cup.

6 Heat the mixture in the microwave for about 45 seconds.

Take out and add one tablespoon of honey. Stir the mixture and then microwave it again for another 45 seconds.

7 Drink this syrup at bed time preferably.

Have a sound sleep. Zzzz!

How to : Transfer Your Old VHS Tapes To Your Computer

Kids these days have no idea how lucky they are with their fancy Blu-rays and Netflix. I remember growing up with VHS tapes… the video quality is pretty poor by today’s standard, and fast-forwarding and rewinding actually happened mechanically, but they were truly marvels of technology at the time. But they played a more important role than just being the format for the latest Hollywood blockbuster. We also used VHS tapes to record our family videos. All those memories! But did you know that VHS tapes don’t last forever? Nope. VHS tapes have a shelf life and the tapes will deteriorate over time. The life expectancy can vary quite a bit and depends on the brand, and the way the tape is handled and stores, but video experts agree that you should transfer them into digital media as soon as possible! But how!? Here’s a great tutorial…

Share this with your friends and family by clicking the button below.

How to : Make aMushroom Grilled Cheese Sandwich

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Grilled cheese is one of the ultimate comfort foods. and if you like mushrooms then this Mushroom Grilled Cheese Sandwich is going to be the one for you! Filled with mushrooms, garlic, onions, thyme, gruyere cheese, parmesan cheese and my all time favorite…truffle oil!

The Mushroom Grilled Cheese is not your average kids sandwich. The adult flavors and textures will really have your whole mouth singing! I am not in any way saying that children cannot have advanced palates, but if they don’t this may be a great way to help to encourage the gastronomical growth of your children.

Mushroom Grilled Cheese Sandwich

Ingredients:
– 1 tablespoon butter
– 1 tablespoon olive oil
– 1 small onion, sliced
– 8 ounces cremini mushrooms, sliced
– 2 cloves garlic, chopped
– 1 teaspoon thyme, chopped
– 1/4 cup white wine or broth
– salt and pepper to taste
– 1 tablespoon parsley, chopped
– 1/2 teaspoon truffle oil (optional)
– 1 cup fontina or gruyere, shredded
– 1/4 cup Parmigiano-Reggiano grated
– 4 slices bread
– 2 tablespoon butter

How to : Make things with WINE and BEER BOTTLES: LOOK WHAT YOU CAN DO WITH IT

glass-bottles-criative-recycle

Recycle glass bottles in a creative way is a opportunity to save money and at the same time to test your imagination. If your dustbin is full of glass bottles, of wine or beer, or any other drink, before you decide to throw away it maybe you should take a look at these 10 possibilities of recycling. Here, then 10 creative ideas to put into practice immediately:

1) Table lamps

Beer and wine bottles can become table lamps: it is sufficient to realize, with the aid of a glass tip, a hole and insert inside a light wire.

2) Candle holders

Another tip is to give life to the candle holders, maybe obtained by cutting the bottles in half. All you need is a kit to cut the bottles, and in a moment you get what you want.

create-recycle-bottles

3) Shelves

Having wood shelves and glass bottles – provided it are all the same size – you can create shelves quite original, such as those created by the Scottish company Zero Waste Design.

4) Christmas Trees

Are becoming more common, and very spectacular from the aesthetic point of view, the trees – Christmas and beyond – made with glass bottles: in Shanghai, for example, in 2009 have been used a thousand bottles of Heineken to create a magnificent tree.

glasses

5) Glasses

It seems strange to say this, but the glass bottles can be tranformed … in glasses. Also in this case, it is essential to cut in half (you can just incise the bottle with a cutter from the glass, then use a flame to heat the line that you engrave, and finally pass around the incision with an ice cube. A few moments later the bottle will break along such a line).

6) Torches

If the bamboo Tiki torches are unwelcome, there is no better solution than to prepare them with glass bottles. This is demonstrated by the propose of Design Sponge, offering minimal and modern style lamps made from simple bottles of wine. The advantage provided by these objects is twofold: it is, indeed, torches which cost very little and which can be mounted directly to the wall.

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7) Chandeliers

Very imaginative idea is to create a chandelier with glass bottles overturned. Is necessary, in this case, a bit of craftsmanship, with the right experience in DIY.

8) Vases blackboard

Thanks to the chalkboard paint, anyone has the ability to turn a bottle which contained water in a trendy and looking very intriguing pot, on which it will be fun to draw and write anything you want.

bells

9) Bells

The glass bottles can be recycled creatively also through a transformation in bell chimes. The kit to cut the bottom allows you to perform the work without difficulty, and with a little of string, a piece of beaten copper and a wooden ball bells are ready to be played.

10) Feeders for birds

Finally, the last proposal to recycle glass bottles in a useful and interesting way is to give life to the bird feeders. The bottles must be hung upside down from a hook, and within it must be inserted a small tube that comes out from the neck and allow the birds to feed.

 

How to :Tell Someone They Talk Too Loudly

 

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You probably have the same internal monologue every time you’re around one or two people in your life. “Really? I’m 3 feet away from you. Why are you talking so loudly? I can hear you!” Or maybe, “You are so loud. Your desk is on the other side of the office, but I can’t even hear myself think.” If someone you know has a natural volume between a shout and a roar, it’s acceptable to say something if it’s truly interfering with your comfort or productivity. It’s also OK if it’s someone important in your life, who is going to be embarrassed after realizing they’ve been drowning out the rest of the restaurant for 30 minutes.
Some people are inherently loud because of their physical build – they have large larynxes and vocal cords

Other loud talkers were raised in environments where commotion was the norm and they had to speak up to be heard. People who are hard of hearing may have trouble modulating their voices

No matter the cause for the volume, loud talkers fall into two camps: those who know they’re loud, and those who are clueless. Either way, communicating your concerns requires some sensitivity and patience on your part, but you may end up making your environment a little calmer and quieter.
Approaching a stranger about loud talking might seem daunting — and in a lot of cases, it’s really not worth bringing up. But there are some exceptions. A sleepless red-eye flight. A ruined romantic dinner. A movie you can barely hear. At times like this, it’s fine to excuse yourself and politely request, “Could you please speak a bit more quietly?” You won’t always get cooperation — or even a polite response — but nothing will change if you don’t try. You can also ask a flight attendant, wait staff, or movie theater manager to intervene.
Telling a friend or family member that they talk too loudly is a conversation that should be handled privately. If you’re trying to get someone to be more discreet, what message do you send if you’re broadcasting the complaint? Make an observation and a request, and avoid using “you,” as in, “You talk too loudly.” Though it may be true, it comes across as accusatory, which doesn’t inspire cooperation. “Your voice” identifies the problem without laying blame, so try saying, “You probably don’t realize, but your voice can really carry.” You may have to offer reminders periodically, since loud talking is often a well-established habit. See if the two of you can strike an agreement on a quiet cue – a signal or phrase – that’s effective but not offensive. One trick is to deliberately speak quietly — the other person will often get the hint and lower his or her voice in return.
Addressing loud talking in the workplace is a little different — especially when it’s a colleague and not someone you directly manage. Before complaining, find out whether your own habits are affecting your work environment for other people. Be prepared: They really could be. Maybe you have a squeaky chair and constantly fidget, or you sigh a lot.
If you do learn you’re annoying other people, don’t be defensive. Listen and offer a way to address the concern. Then, it’s your turn to talk about speaking volume. Direct criticism probably won’t go over well, so try putting the blame on poor soundproofing, thin walls or bad acoustics. This way you’re seeking help for a common problem. Acknowledge your own sensitivity to noise, and express your grievance in terms of your unfortunate hypersensitivity. Say something like, “In the office, your voice carries, and I can hear it very easily.” Ask for help with the situation and listen to recommendations. Suggest a mutually agreed-upon verbal or nonverbal quiet cue, just as you did with your acquaintance above. With this plan in mind, set a date to check in with each other and measure progress. If you oil that squeaky chair, maybe your office mate will speak more softly.

How to : Prevent Apples and Pear Slices from Browning

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Apples are one of those things that I like to have sliced and in the fridge–especially now when they’re in season. I eat them plain or sprinkle them with cinnamon. When I need a little protein boost, I dip them in peanut, almond, or walnut butter.

The fastest, easiest way to slice an apple.
I use an apple slicer to core and cut an entire apple into slices in one stroke–a great, inexpensive gadget that is available in many stores.

  • 8-slice apple corer/slicer — These bigger slices hold up better with thicker dips like peanut butter. Works great for no-mess slicing of caramel apples, too!
  • 16-slice apple corer/slicer — These thinner slices and great for easy snacking, lighter dipping, and party platters.

How to keep apple and pear slices from browning. Easy methods using ingredients from your kitchen. From TheYummyLife.com

Trouble is, apples (and pears) oxidize and turn brown quickly after they’re sliced and exposed to air. Even though they still taste good, they’re just not very appealing that way.  So, I’ve experimented with some ways to keep them from browning, and there are a number of effective methods. Here are eight different methods to choose from, depending on which ingredients you have on hand.

How to keep apple and pear slices from browning.  Soak them in one of these solutions for 5 minutes. Citric acid is the key ingredient in most of these, because it helps prevent oxidization (browning).

1. Soak them in a bowl of cold lemon water. This is better than squeezing the lemon juice directly on the fruit, unless you don’t mind the fruit tasting really lemony. Mix 1 tablespoon of lemon juice per 1 cup of water.

2. Soak them in a bowl of cold salt water. Not too much salt, or it affects the taste of the fruit. Dissolve 1/2 teaspoon of salt per 1 quart (4 cups) of water.

3. Soak them in a bowl of Sprite, 7-Up, or a similar lemon-lime, carbonated soda. (Note: Most soft drinks contains artificial ingredients and high-fructose corn syrup, so this isn’t the healthiest option…but it works.)

4. Soak them in a bowl with Fruit-Fresh (or citric acid powder) and cold water. Fruit Fresh is sold in stores with canning supplies. Use 1 teaspoon Fruit Fresh per 1 cup of water.

5. Soak them in a bowl of honey water. Use 2 tablespoons of honey per 1 cup of water.

6. Soak them in a bowl of cold water mixed with a crushed chewable Vitamin C tablet. I used 1 crushed tablet per 1 cup of water.

7. Soak them in a bowl of apple cider and lemon juice. I like this idea, because the apple cider enhances the apple flavor while balancing/diluting the lemon juice. Use 1/2 cup apple cider per 1/4 cup lemon juice.

8. Soak them in pineapple juice or a combo of pineapple and lemon juice. I used 1 tablespoon lemon juice per cup of pineapple juice.

9. Soak them in plain carbonated water.

How to keep apple and pear slices from browning. Easy methods using ingredients from your kitchen. From TheYummyLife.com

Store the fruit slices in a ziploc bag.
After soaking my fruit slices, I drain off the liquid and store them in a ziploc bag in the fridge. Squeeze as much air out of the bag as possible before sealing it. Amazing how long the apples stay fresh and and crispy this way. Their storage life can vary depending on the type and freshness of the apples. If you’re using apples that are in season and fairly freshly picked, they will stay fresh longer than those that have been picked and stored for a long time. I’ve had them keep for up to a week.

How to keep apple and pear slices from browning. Easy methods using ingredients from your kitchen. From TheYummyLife.com

Slice fruit in advance for entertaining.
Sliced apples and pears are great to have on fruit plates for guests. They’re good year round, and particularly in the fall. Try sprinkling them with cinnamon for some added flavor. Or, you can serve them with:

How to keep apple and pear slices from browning. Easy methods using ingredients from your kitchen. From TheYummyLife.com

You know what they say about “An Apple A Day . . . .”  Having these nutritious fruit slices on hand may help keep the doctor away.

 

Directions

Here’s how to keep apple and pear slices from browning.  Soak them in one of these solutions for 5 minutes. Citric acid is the key ingredient in most of these, because it helps prevent oxidization (browning).

1. Soak them in a bowl of cold lemon water. This is better than squeezing the lemon juice directly on the fruit, unless you don’t mind the fruit tasting really lemony. Mix 1 tablespoon of lemon juice per 1 cup of water.

2. Soak them in a bowl of cold salt water. Not too much salt, or it affects the taste of the fruit. Dissolve 1/2 teaspoon of salt per 1 quart (4 cups) of water.

3. Soak them in a bowl of Sprite, 7-Up, or a similar lemon-lime, carbonated soda. (Note: Most soft drinks contains artificial ingredients and high-fructose corn syrup, so this isn’t the healthiest option…but it works.)

4. Soak them in a bowl with Fruit-Fresh (or citric acid powder) and cold water. Fruit Fresh is sold in stores with canning supplies. Use 1 teaspoon Fruit Fresh per 1 cup of water.

5. Soak them in a bowl of cold water mixed with a crushed chewable Vitamin C tablet. Use 1 crushed tablet per 1 cup of water.

6. Soak them in a bowl of apple cider and lemon juice. I like this idea, because the apple cider enhances the apple flavor while balancing/diluting the lemon juice. Use 1/2 cup apple cider per 1/4 cup lemon juice.

7. Soak them in pineapple juice or a combo of pineapple and lemon juice. I used 1 tablespoon lemon juice per cup of pineapple juice.

8. Soak them in plain carbonated water.

TO STORE THE SLICES: Store the fruit slices in a ziploc bag. After soaking the fruit slices, drain off the liquid and store them in a Ziploc bag in the fridge. Squeeze as much air out of the bag as possible before sealing it.  Apples & pear slices stay fresh and and crispy this way. Their storage life can vary depending on the type and freshness of the fruit. If you’re using fruit that is in season and fairly freshly picked, it will stay fresh longer than those that have been picked and stored for a long time. When using freshly picked apples, the slices may be stored for up to a week in the fridge.