Who Wrote The Bible?

Set aside what religious tradition says, and discover who wrote the Bible according to the scholars who have examined the actual evidence.

Who Wrote The Bible

HOLY BOOKS HAVE A REACH that goes far beyond what virtually all works of literature can ever accomplish. Unlike, say, The Great Gatsby, the Bible is a text upon which millions and millions of people have based their entire lives.

That fact can be good or bad, and it’s often been both over the many centuries throughout which Christians have been reading the Bible and Jews have been reading the Torah. But given its immense reach and cultural influence, it’s a bit surprising how little we really know about the Bible’s origins. In other words, who wrote the Bible? Of all the mysteries surrounding the Bible, that one may be the most fascinating.

We’re not completely ignorant, of course. Some books of the Bible were written in the clear light of history, and their authorship isn’t terribly controversial. Other books can be reliably dated to a given period by either internal clues — sort of the way no books written in the 1700s mention airplanes, for instance — and by their literary style, which develops over time.

Religious doctrine, of course, holds that God himself is the author of or at least the inspiration for the entirety of the Bible, which was transcribed by a series of humble vessels. About the best that can be said for that notion is that if God really did “write” the Bible through a millennium-long sequence of various authors, he was certainly doing it the hard way.

As for the actual historical evidence regarding who wrote the Bible, that’s a longer story.

Who Wrote The Bible: The First Five Books

Painting Of Moses

According to both Jewish and Christian Dogma, the books of Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, and Deuteronomy (the first five books of the Bible and the entirety of the Torah) were all written by Moses in about 1,300 B.C. There are a few issues with this, however, such as the lack of evidence that Moses ever existed and the fact that the end of Deuteronomy describes the “author” dying and being buried.

Scholars have developed their own take on who wrote the Bible’s first five books, mainly by using internal clues and writing style. Just as English speakers can roughly date a book that uses a lot of “thee’s” and “thou’s,” Bible scholars can contrast the styles of these early books to create profiles of the different authors.

In each case, these writers are talked about as if they were a single person, but each author could just as easily be an entire school of people writing in a single style. These biblical “authors” include:

  • E: “E” stands for Elohist, the name given to the author(s) who referred to God as “Elohim.” In addition to a fair bit of Exodus and a little bit of Numbers, the “E” author(s) are believed to be the ones who wrote the Bible’s first creation account in Genesis chapter one.Interestingly, however, “Elohim” is plural, so chapter one originally stated that “Gods created the heavens and earth.” It’s believed that this hearkens back to a time when proto-Judaism was polytheistic, though it was almost certainly a one-deity religion by the 900s B.C., when “E” would have lived.
  • J: “J” is believed to be the second author(s) of the first five books (much of Genesis and some of Exodus), including the creation account in Genesis chapter two (the detailed one where Adam is created first and there’s a serpent). This name comes from “Jahwe,” the German translation of “YHWH” or “Yahweh,” the name this author used for God.At one time, J was thought to have lived close to the time of E, but there’s just no way that could be true. Some of the literary devices and turns of phrase that J uses could only have been picked up sometime after 600 B.C., during the Jewish captivity in Babylon.

    For example, “Eve” first appears in J’s text when she is made from the rib of Adam. “Rib” is “ti” in Babylonian, and it’s associated with the goddess Tiamat, the mother deity. A lot of Babylonian mythology and astrology (including the stuff about Lucifer, the Morning Star) snuck into the Bible in this way via the captivity.

Destruction Of Jerusalem

  • P: “P” stands for “Priestly,” and it almost certainly refers to a whole school of writers living in and around Jerusalem in the late sixth century B.C., immediately after the Babylonian captivity ended. These writers were effectively reinventing their peoples’ religion from fragmentary texts now lost.P writers drafted almost all of the dietary and other kosher laws, emphasized the holiness of the Sabbath, wrote endlessly about Moses’ brother Aaron (the first priest in Jewish tradition) to the exclusion of Moses himself, and so on.

    P seems to have written just a few verses of Genesis and Exodus, but virtually all of Leviticus and Numbers. P authors are distinguished from the other writers by their use of quite a lot of Aramaic words, mostly borrowed into Hebrew. In addition, some of the rules attributed to P are known to have been common among the Chaldeans of modern-day Iraq, whom the Hebrews must have known during their exile in Babylon, suggesting that the P texts were written after that period.

King Josiah

  • D: “D” is for “Deuteronomist,” which means: “guy who wrote Deuteronomy.” D was also, like the other four, originally attributed to Moses, but that’s only possible if Moses liked to write in the third person, could see the future, used language no one in his own time would have used, and knew where his own tomb would be (clearly, Moses was not who wrote the Bible at all).D also takes little asides to indicate just how much time has passed between the events described and the time of his writing about them — “there were Canaanites in the land then,” “Israel has not had such a great prophet [as Moses] down to this very day” — once again disproving any notions that Moses was the one who wrote the Bible in any way.

    Deuteronomy was actually written much later. The text first came to light in the tenth year of the reign of King Josiah of Judah, which was roughly 640 B.C. Josiah had inherited the throne from his father at age eight and ruled through the Prophet Jeremiah until he was of age.

    Around 18, the King decided to seize full control of Judah, so he dispatched Jeremiah to the Assyrians with a mission to fetch home the remaining diaspora Hebrews. Then, he ordered a renovation of the Temple of Solomon, where Deuteronomy was supposedly found under the floor — or so Josiah’s story goes.

    Purporting to be a book by Moses himself, this text was a near-perfect match for the cultural revolution that Josiah was leading at the time, suggesting that Josiah orchestrated this “discovery” to serve his own political and cultural ends.

    This is roughly the equivalent of President Trump fishing around in the Liberty Bell and claiming to find an amendment to the Constitution written by Thomas Jefferson that requires presidents to build border walls — even though the supposed amendment uses modern words such as “email” and “cellphone.”

Histories

Joshua Makes The Sun Stand Still

The next answers to the question of who wrote the Bible come from the books of Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, generally believed to have been written during the Babylonian captivity in the middle of the sixth century B.C. Traditionally believed to have been written by Joshua and Samuel themselves, they’re now often lumped in with Deuteronomy due to their similar style and language.

Nevertheless, there is a substantial gap between the “discovery” of Deuteronomy under Josiah in about 640 B.C. and the middle of the Babylonian captivity somewhere around 550 B.C. However, it’s possible that some of the youngest priests who were alive in the time of Josiah were still alive when Babylon hauled off the whole country as captives.

Whether it was these priests of the Deuteronomy era or their successors that wrote Joshua, Judges, Samuel, and Kings, these texts represent a highly mythologized history of their newly dispossessed people thanks to the Babylonian captivity.

Who Wrote The Bible Egypt

This history opens with the Hebrews getting a commission from God to leave their Egyptian captivity (which probably resonated with the contemporary readers who had the Babylonian captivity on their minds) and utterly dominate the Holy Land.

The next section covers the age of the great prophets, who were believed to be in daily contact with God, and who routinely humiliated the Canaanites’ deities with feats of strength and miracles.

Finally, the two books of Kings cover the “Golden Age” of Israel, under the kings Saul, David, and Solomon, centered around the tenth century B.C.

The intent of the authors here isn’t hard to parse: Throughout the books of Kings, the reader is assailed with endless warnings not to worship strange gods, or to take up the strangers’ ways — especially relevant for a people in the middle of the Babylonian captivity, freshly plunged into a foreign country and without a clear national identity of their own.

Who Wrote The Bible: Prophets

Prophet Isaiah

The next texts to examine when investigating who wrote the Bible are those of the biblical prophets, an eclectic group who mostly traveled around the various Jewish communities to admonish people and lay curses and sometimes preach sermons about everybody’s shortcomings.

Some prophets lived way back before the “Golden Age” while others did their work during and after the Babylonian captivity. Later, many of books of the Bible attributed to these prophets were largely written by others and were fictionalized to the level of Aesop’s Fables by people living centuries after the events in the books were supposed to have happened, for example:

  • Isaiah: Isaiah was one of the greater prophets of Israel, and the book of the Bible attributed to him is agreed to have been written in basically three parts: early, middle, and late.Early, or “proto-” Isaiah texts may have been written close to the time when the man himself really lived, around the eighth century B.C., about the time when the Greeks were first writing down Homer’s stories. These writings run from chapters one to 39, and they’re all doom and judgment for sinful Israel.

    When Israel actually did fall with the Babylonian conquest and captivity, the works attributed to Isaiah were dusted off and expanded into what’s now known as chapters 40-55 by the same people who wrote Deuteronomy and the historical texts. This part of the book is frankly the ravings of an outraged patriot about how all the lousy, savage foreigners will someday be made to pay for what they’ve done to Israel. This section is where the terms “voice in the wilderness” and “swords into ploughshares” come from.

    Finally, the third part of the book of Isaiah was clearly written after the Babylonian captivity ended in 539 B.C. when the invading Persians permitted the Jews to return home. It’s not surprising then that his section of Isaiah is a burbling tribute to the Persian Cyrus the Great, who is identified as the Messiah himself for letting the Jews return to their home.

Jeremiah The Prophet

  • Jeremiah: Jeremiah lived a century or so after Isaiah, immediately before the Babylonian captivity. The authorship of his book remains relatively unclear, even compared with other discussions as to who wrote the Bible.He may have been one of the Deuteronomist writers, or he may have been one of the earliest “J” authors. His own book may have been written by him, or by a man named Baruch ben Neriah, whom he mentions as one of his scribes. Either way, the book of Jeremiah has a very similar style to Kings, and so it’s possible that either Jeremiah or Baruch simply wrote them all.
  • Ezekiel: Ezekiel ben-Buzi was a priesthood member living in Babylon itself during the captivity.There’s no way he wrote the whole book of Ezekiel himself, given the stylistic differences from one part to the next, but he may have written some. His students/acolytes/junior assistants may have written the rest. These also might have been the writers who survived Ezekiel to draft the P texts after the captivity.

Wisdom Literature

Who Wrote The Bible Job

The next section of the Bible — and the next investigation into who wrote the Bible — deals with what’s known as the wisdom literature. These books are the finished product of nearly a thousand years of development and heavy editing.

Unlike the histories, which are theoretically non-fiction accounts of stuff that happened, wisdom literature has been redacted over the centuries with an extremely casual attitude that has made it hard to pin down any single book to any single author. Some patterns, however, have emerged:

  • Job: The book of Job is actually two scripts. In the middle, it’s a very ancient epic poem, like the E text. These two texts may be the oldest writings in the Bible.On either side of that epic poem in the middle of Job are much more recent writings. It’s as if Chaucer’s The Canterbury Tales were to be reissued today with an introduction and epilogue by Stephen King as if the whole thing were one long text.

    Section one of Job contains a very modern narrative of setup and exposition, which was typical of the Western tradition and indicates that this part was written after Alexander the Great swept over Judah in 332 B.C. The happy ending of Job is also very much in this tradition.

    Between these two sections, the list of misfortunes that Job endures, and his tumultuous confrontation with God, are written in a style that would have been around eight or nine centuries old when the beginning and ending were written.

  • Psalms/Proverbs: Like Job, Psalms and Proverbs are also cobbled together from both older and newer sources. For example, some Psalms are written as if there’s a reigning king on the throne in Jerusalem, while others directly mention the Babylonian captivity, during which time there was of course no king on the throne of Jerusalem. Proverbs was likewise continuously updated until about the mid-second century B.C.

Battle Of Issus

  • Ptolemaic Period: The Ptolemaic period began with the Greek conquest of Persia in the late fourth century B.C. Before then, the Jewish people had been doing very well under the Persians, and they were not happy about the Greek takeover.Their main objection seems to have been cultural: Within a few decades of the conquest, Jewish men were flagrantly adopting Greek culture by dressing in togas and drinking wine in public places. Women were even teaching Greek to their children and donations were way down at temple.

    The writings from this time are of a high technical quality, partly thanks to the hated Greek influence, but they also tend to be melancholy, likewise due to the hated Greek influence. Books from this period include Ruth, Esther, Lamentations, Ezra, Nehemiah, Lamentations, and Ecclesiastes.

Who Wrote The Bible: The New Testament

Jesus Delivering Sermon

Finally, the question of who wrote the Bible turns to the texts dealing with Jesus and beyond.

In the second century B.C. with the Greeks still in power, Jerusalem was run by fully Hellenized kings who considered it their mission to erase Jewish identity with full assimilation.

To that end, King Antiochus Epiphanes had a Greek gymnasium built across the street from the Second Temple and made it a legal requirement for Jerusalem’s men to visit it at least once. The thought of stripping nude in a public place blew the minds of Jerusalem’s faithful Jews, and they rose in bloody revolt to stop it.

In time, Hellenistic rule fell apart in the area and was replaced by the Romans. It was during this time, early in the first century A.D., that one of the Jews from Nazareth inspired a new religion, one that saw itself as a continuation of Jewish tradition, but with scriptures of its own:

  • Gospels: The four Gospels in the King James Bible — Matthew, Mark, Luke, and John — tell the story of Jesus’ life and death (and what came after that). These books are named after Jesus’ apostles, although these books’ actual authors may have just been using those names for street cred.The first Gospel to be written may have been Mark, which then inspired Matthew and Luke (John differs from the others). Alternatively, all three may have been based on a now-lost older book known to scholars as Q. Whatever the case, evidence suggests that Acts seems to have been written at the same time (the end of the first century A.D.) and by the same author as Mark.

Paul The Apostle

  • Epistles: The Epistles are a series of letters, written to various early congregations in the eastern Mediterranean, by a single individual. Saul of Tarsus famously converted after an encounter with Jesus on the road to Damascus, after which he changed his name to Paul and became the single most enthusiastic missionary of the new religion. Along the way to his eventual martyrdom, Paul wrote Epistles of James, Peter, Johns, and Jude.
  • Apocalypse: The book of Revelation has traditionally been attributed to the Apostle John.Unlike the other traditional attributions, this one wasn’t very far off in terms of actual historical authenticity, though this book was written a little late for someone who claimed to know Jesus personally. John, of Revelation fame, seems to have been a converted Jew who wrote his vision of the End Times on the Greek island of Patmos about 100 years after Jesus’ death.

While the writings attributed to John actually do show some congruity between who wrote the Bible according to tradition and who wrote the Bible according to historical evidence, the question of Biblical authorship remains thorny, complex, and contested.

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The menacing looking superyacht ‘Black Swan

 

The’Black Swan’ boat features hidden balconies, an arrow-shaped tip and a pool that fades towards the sea

  • Called Black Swan, the concept yacht would be a floating palace for any billionaire who is bold enough to build it 
  • Stunning vessel features a multi-level pool, spacious sun deck, helipad and hidden balconies with sunloungers 
  • A helicopter platform on the top deck is accessed via a concealed lift, providing quick access to an airport or villa
The Sinister and Sleek Black Swan superyacht is said to be one of the most innovative designers of his generation, Timur Bozca has created a yacht concept made for the Bond villain in you.

The exterior includes a helicopter platform on the top deck, an extensive beach club and a pool. For the interior, a master suite and six guest suites accommodate up to 12 guests.The helicopter platform includes a concealed elevator that will bring guests to the aft deck where they can enjoy the extended beach club.

Two forward balconies are protected by glass railings, offering unobstructed views of the sea or sights in places such as the French Riviera or Caribbean.

A helicopter platform on the top deck is accessed via a concealed lift, allowing the owner and his or her guests to travel between the yacht and the airport or their villa without getting stuck in traffic.

Inside, a master suite and six guest cabins can accommodate 12 people.

Four engines give this superyacht an impressive horsepower rating of 23,172, and allow Black Swan to reach speeds up to 28 knots. At over 200 feet long, this eye-catching vessel is sure to make a statement on the open ocean.

Could Gingers become extinct due to climate change ?

Scientists believe the gene that causes red hair could die out if temperatures continue to Rise according to genetic scientists Redheads are becoming rarer and could be extinct in 100 years’ time.

Polar bears and Emperor penguins aren’t the only species under threat due to climate change.

Scientists believe the gene that causes red hair is an evolutionary response to cloudy skies and allows inhabitants to get as much Vitamin D as possible.

But if predictions of rising temperatures and blazing sunshine across the British Isles turn out to be correct, flaming red heads could cease to exist within centuries.

While only 1% to 2% of the world’s population are ginger, in the north of the UK, where the weather tends to be more gloomy, this number is much higher.

In Scotland 650,000 (about 13% of the population) have red hair and, according to a study carried out last year, 40% of those living in Edinburgh are thought to carry the red hair/blue eye gene.

In the North and West of the UK, 29% of the population are believed to have the gene.

Red hair is caused by a mutation in the MC1R gene. It’s also a recessive trait, so it takes both parents passing on a mutated version of the MC1R gene to produce a redheaded child. Because it’s a recessive trait, red hair can easily skip a generation. It can then reappear after skipping one or more generations if both parents, no matter their hair color, carry the red hair gene.

“I think the reason for light skin and red hair is that we do not get enough sun and we have to get all the Vitamin D we can.

“If the climate is changing and it is to become more cloudy or less cloudy then this will affect the gene.

“If it was to get less cloudy and there was more sun, then yes, there would be fewer people carrying the gene.”

Another leading scientist, who asked not to be named because of the theoretical nature of the work, said: “I think the regressive gene is slowly dying out. Red hair and blue eyes are not adapted to a warm climate.

“It is just a theory but the recessive gene may likely be lost. The recessive gene could be in danger.”

Vagina Flavored Beer!

Vagina-beer.png

Would you drink this?

Most booze lovers would be quite open to trying different craft beers – and there are many to choose from these days.

But even the most adventurous of beer drinkers might have a hard time getting their head around this one, made from bacteria harvested from vaginas.

Although this sounds like a joke, rest assured it is not…in fact, this company is not the first company to try and market a food product that had the essence of vagina! However, we believe this is the first time we have ever come across anything that we were asked to eat or drink that includes the woman’s “juice” as an active ingredient in the product!

The name of the beer is The Order of Yoni. Wojtek Mann, the founder of the company explains that the word “yoni” means “vagina” in the Sanskrit language and the logo/artwork associated with the beer is also the symbol of a Hindu Goddess.

As you can imagine things only get weirder when you learn more about a vagina flavored beer.

Cerveja-vaginal-1

The creators behind ‘Bottled Instinct’ decided that they wanted to capture the essence of a woman (‘her charm, her sensuality, her passion… her taste, feel her smell… her voice’) and turn it into a drink.

The Order of Yoni’s website reads: “The secret of the beer lies in her vagina.

“Using hi-tech of microbiology, we isolate, examine and prepare lactic acid bacteria from vagina of a unique woman.

“The bacteria, lactobacillus, transfer woman’s features, allure, grace, glamour, and her instincts into beers and other products, turning them into dance with lovely goddess.”

10 Pedal Bikes That Might Cost More Than Your Car

Just when you thought things couldn’t get any better than this, you find out that car manufacturers have begun to branch out into bikes. In reality, carmakers have been producing and branding bikes for over 15 years. Mercedes-Benz started this trend by branding an AMP mountain bike.

The bike could be folded into a suitcase and put in the trunk of a car. Back in 1997, which was when this happened, the bike weighed 24 pounds. This wasn’t a bad weight at all for that day and age. The price wasn’t that out of this world either. It was just £3,300.

Soon, other car companies had begun to follow suit, with BMW creating an Olympic Games mountain bike that only cost $800. This was in 1997 as well. However, as car manufacturers began to rise in worth over the subsequent years, the cost of all their products increased as well.

Indeed, a Ferrari branded keychain soon cost as much as £30. This is a pretty big deal, considering that a keychain usually costs around £5. However, car companies actually began to make bikes for the wealthier consumer market.

They felt that this allowed them to promote their brand as caring about the environment. After all, it doesn’t get any greener than a bicycle. After a few years of creating mountain and road bikes, companies began to branch out into a relatively new technology.

This was the electric bike. The manufacturers did anything they could in order to appear environmentally friendly. Now, nearly all major automotive brands have manufactured bicycles that sport their logos. Sometimes, these bikes even share the same technology as the cars made by the automaker.

Of course, you aren’t going to find a bike from a major car company that costs £800 anymore. Today, most of the bikes from car manufacturers cost more than your family vehicle. They completely deserve the price tag, at times. Sometimes though it feels like the bike is only expensive because of the brand name.

Some people still go for these bikes as well, purely so that they can show off the flashy, premium logos that the bike features. While it is not recommended that you blow your retirement savings on a road bike made by Lamborghini that costs roughly the same as a mid-range sports car you can if you want to.

Without further ado, here are 10 bikes made by car companies, in recent years that are among the most expensive and innovative in the world. You can always find many more to come in the near future, as there are a number of concept auto bikes out there that may or may not be shelved later.

BMC Lamborghini Limited Edition Road Bike

1 – BMC Lamborghini Limited Edition Road Bike

Lamborghini has collaborated with BMC in order to design and produce this limited edition beauty of the streets. BMC is a Swiss company that is known for producing some of the best bikes in the world. One of their sub-brands, impec, is known for some of the best BMC bikes in the world.

Lamborghini has worked with impec to create a road bike that is definitely a step into the future. Exactly 50 of these premium bikes were made, in celebration of 50 years of Lamborghini. The bike is one of Lamborghini’s finest creations, and released with the Veneno supercar.

The frame, designed by impec, is made out of bespoke carbon fiber. It has been woven by robots and joined by their very own Shell Nodes. It features a 22 gear drivetrain, and Campagnolo Bora deep-section wheels. The bike is a truly sleek beauty, and is definitely one of the most exclusive out there.

It is true that the Lamborghini logo in itself is part of what imparts such a huge price on a road bike. However, it can’t be denied that the technology used to build the bike, as well as the branding on the build kit (Campagnolo Super Record EPS) make for a bike that is very nice indeed.

Price: £23,000 (on release)

Porsche Bike RS

2 – Porsche Bike RS

Porsche is one of the most famous brands of automobiles anywhere. It is the first bike with 2 accelerators to have been made by Porsche, which has actually been creating bikes for quite a while. Their bikes generally aren’t as expensive as you would expect, although they do still cost big bucks.

The bike frame is made out of high-end carbon, with carbon handlebars, stem and seat posts. All of these are ergonomically designed. The bike also features premium Shimano XTR drive, with 20 speed gears. The brakes are Magura MT8s, and the wheels are Crankbrothers Cobalt 3 wheels with Schwalbe Marathon Supreme Performance road tires.

It is a hybrid road bike, and is very beautifully made indeed. Although Porsche seems to have forgotten that roads have tiny bumps in them, leading to a noticeable lack of comfort, the lightweight fun to ride bike has definitely earned its place among the high rollers. The top speed of this bike has not been assessed, but it is definitely a speedster.

Price: 4K

Specialized S-Works McLaren Tarmac

3 – Specialized S-Works McLaren Tarmac

Specialized is a very famous premium sport bike manufacturing company. They have consistently been rated as one of the top bike manufacturers in the world. The bike maker and the world famous McLaren car company have joined forces to create the S-Works McLaren Tarmac road bike, which is one beautiful machine.

It comes in as a big brother to the S-Works Tarmac, one of the faster road bikes you will ever have the joy of riding. It offers 10% less weight than the standard bike, and uses a McLaren patented carbon fiber layup technology (FACT construction).

The handlebars are custom made by AeroFly, and the wheelset is a specially selected CLX40R tubular wheelset. The hubs and crankset are ceramic coated to reduce friction and make for a sleek, superfast road bike overall. The bike is limited edition, so only 250 are being made by Specialized.

The painting is done at the same location where the McLaren P1 is painted, and comes with an exclusive McLaren branded paint job. The bike comes with a custom fitted helmet, cycling shoes, and a name plate and wall plaque that are personalized to each buyer. This is definitely a bike worth buying, if you have the money for it.

Price: 15K

Aston Martin One-77 Bike

4 – Aston Martin One-77 Bike

The Aston Martin One 77 was one of the “sexiest cars ever made”. It sold out in record time after being released into the market. The British car manufacturer had truly outdone itself. Then, to celebrate the success of the car that was made famous for being James Bond’s ride of choice, they decided to go a step further.

Aston Martin partnered with Factor Bikes, one of the most premium bike makers in the UK, with a reputation for speed and elegant design. Together, they created and launched the Aston Martin One77 superbike. They called it the “most technologically advanced road bike ever”.

Like its namesake car, the One 77 bike also uses a carbon fiber build in order to minimize the weight, and features a high-end onboard computer to give riders a taste of the sheer luxury that the coupe offered when it was being sold.

The computer uses a range of sensors including those in the crank, rear wheel and GPS, in order to calculate and deliver accurate performance results to the cyclist. These results include a wide spectrum of calculations, including crank torque and force in each leg separately, along with wasted power, acceleration, friction, rate of climb and thrust.

Price: £28,600

Montante Maserati

5 – Montante Maserati

In 1940, Wilbur Shaw of the Maserati Racing Team won the Indy 500 with a crushing victory over 200 laps. 70 years later, Maserati decided to fly their colors by working with the Italian bike builders Montante Cicli to produce a truly retro road bike.

200 models of the bike were made, and all of them feature detailing that matched the Maserati 8CTF interior, as well as having a unique chassis plate for each example of the bike. The bikes aren’t even that expensive, for their carbon fiber frames and Maserati logo.

Price: £3750

BMW Cruise e-bike

6 – BMW Cruise e-bike

BMW has been producing electric bicycles for a while now, and they have always been top notch. The latest edition of the Cruise electric bike features a Bosch 400Wh battery, which is used in conjunction with the pedaling motion.

The top speed of this bike is 54kmph, which for a bike is downright fast. It boasts a gorgeous design, with the BMW logo adding a premium feel to an already great looking bike. It uses a lightweight aluminum frame and Shimano BR disc brakes. The bike is shipped only within Europe.

Price: £ 2800

Ford Super Cruiser e-bike

7 – Ford Super Cruiser e-bike

This bike was built by Pedego, and was designed by Tony Ellsworth himself. It is a gorgeous example of classic Ford quality. It uses a 500W motor to cruise around all day in the epitome of luxury and class. The throttle and the gear selector both have a very premium look and feel.

Unlike most of the bikes built by car companies, the Ford Super Cruiser isn’t your typical road bike. While most of the company’s focus on sleek, lightweight sports bikes or technological advancements like onboard computers, the super cruiser is a more humble electric cruiser, with some very cool looking Schwalbe Big Ben fat tires on it and the Ford logo sewn into the seat and emblazoned on the bike.

Price: £2800

Smart ebike

8 – Smart ebike

Smart is a company known for its….well, its smart way of getting its cars to be the greenest anywhere. This company is quite well celebrated for its innovation. The smart ebike is a prime example of this grand thinking.

The bike features a 300W electric motor that works when you use the pedals. It weighs 57 pounds, and uses an aluminum alloy frame as well as a 3 speed SRAM gear system. The pedals are Ergon PC2 platforms, and the brakes are Magura MT4 hydraulic disc brakes. It is definitely a bike that is worth considering as a step into the future.

Price: £2550

Ferrari CX60 Mountain Bike

9 – Ferrari CX60 Mountain Bike

This is the perfect bicycle for any enthusiasts in the field of trail and MTB riding, who are also fans of the famous Italian automobile manufacturer. It comes with a Rock Shox suspension system, and Suntour Epicon forks. The derailleurs and shifters are Shimano LX, and the frame is made from aluminum.

The bike also features Shimano Deore hydraulic disc brakes and Continental Explorer 26 tires, along with high density Wellgo pedals, and a Ferrari design saddle made out of high quality microfiber. Produced by Turbo in association with Colnago, this exclusive Ferrari MTB is everything you will ever need for the trails.

Price: £2850

Volkswagen Bik.e electric bike

10 – Volkswagen Bik.e electric bike

Volkswagen has come under a lot of fire recently because of “dieselgate”, a fiasco in which it was discovered that they had been using special devices to give false results on US emissions tests. The CEO of the company has already resigned, and it looks like there is no way out for what is the biggest automaker in the world.

Or is there? VW recently unveiled a concept electric bike in China called the Bik.e, which is a small, lightweight folding e-bike with rumored aluminum or magnesium construction and a weight of under 20 kilograms. Although not many details have been released concerning the bike, its release soon could coincide with the announcement of a new face for the company, one that is far greener.

Price: N/A

Are car company bikes an advertising gimmick?

It is doubtful that the bikes produced by car companies will ever gain traction in a world where people are already struggling to make ends meet. The hefty prices of the bikes they make will make anyone have second thoughts about getting one.

However, it is perfect as a marketing strategy to make themselves look better in the eyes of the public. To companies like VW, this is very crucial right now. If you have the funds to buy one of these bikes, do so if you absolutely have to. And then send us pictures.

The world has gone mad.

It’s been snowing all night.

So the morning goes like this;
8:00 I made a snowman.
8:10 A feminist passed by and asked me why I didn’t make a snow woman.
8:15 So, I made a snow woman.
8:17 The nanny of the neighbours complained about the snow woman’s
voluptuous chest.
8:20 The gay couple living nearby grumbled that it could have been two
snowmen instead.
8:25 The vegans at the end of the lane complained about the carrot nose,
as veggies are food and not to decorate snow figures with.
8:28 I am being called a racist because the snow couple is white.
8:31 The Muslim gent across the road wants the snow woman to wear a
headscarf.
8:40 Someone calls the cops who show up to see what’s going on.
8:42 I am told that the broomstick of the snowman needs to be removed
because it could be used as a deadly weapon. Things get worse after I mutter
: “Certainly, if it’s up your a***”
8:45 TV news crew from the BBC shows up. I am asked if I know the
difference between snowmen and snow-women? I reply, “Snowballs” and am
called a sexist.
8:52 My phone is seized and thoroughly checked while I am being handcuffed
and taken to the police station in a marked van.
9:00 I’m on the News as a suspected terrorist bent on stirring up trouble
during difficult weather.
9:10 I am asked if I have any accomplices.
9:29 A little-known jihadist group has claimed it was their plot.
Moral: There is no moral to this story. It’s just the world in which we live
today!

THESE ARE THE SIX NEW DRIVING LAWS COMING TO EFFECT IN 2018

motorway-traffic

A lot is changing for motorists in 2018. With six new driving laws being introduced, here’s what every driver should know to avoid big penalty fines.

Motoring law changes all the time, but in 2018 there are some pretty big changes afoot. Here are six new changes to the law that will affect each and every one of us, so read up to ensure you stay on the right side of the rules…

British driving laws changes MOT

New MoT legislation

There are new MoT changes that come into force on May 20th, which introduce new testable items.

From this date, any diesel car that has had its DPF removed or tampered with will instantly fail the test, while aftermarket high definition headlamp bulbs will also be outlawed.

Reversing lights will be tested for the first time, and your car will also fail if the brake fluid is visually deteriorated.

Classic cars over 40 years old will now be exempt from testing, too.

Finally, the current system of advisories will be replaced with minor, major and dangerous faults. Minor faults will work the same as the current advisory system and won’t constitute a fail. A car with dangerous faults cannot be driven away from the test until the repairs have been carried out.

Here’s all you need to know about MOT tests and pre checks

Learner drivers to be allowed on motorways

Starting this year, learners will be allowed on motorways for the first time, though motorway driving won’t form part of the test as there are some regions of the country where this will be impractical, such as Western Wales and the Scottish Highlands.

All instructors will be encouraged to give drivers some motorway training, you can read more on this here.

Learner driver plate

 

Penalties for misusing motorways

New ANPR-based (Automatic Number Plate Recognition) cameras will be introduced on major motorways to monitor misuse of the hard shoulder. If a driver uses the hard shoulder on a managed motorway when it isn’t open, or drives in a lane with a red ‘X’ above it, the cameras will automatically trigger a penalty, which includes a £100 fine and three points on your driving licence. Keep an eye on those gantry signs to avoid an unpleasant surprise…

Changes to the driving test

As well as the independent driving element of the current test, where the examiner gives no instructions for 10 minutes, the new test laws will include a section where delegates are expected to follow instructions from a sat nav unit to prove they can follow the directions safely.

The test will also include a section where the driver is asked to demonstrate a function of the car, such as how the windscreen wipers work, or how to demist the windscreen.

Reversing into a car park bay is now also part of the test.

British driving laws changes child seat

Tax rises for diesel cars

First year car tax for all diesel cars that aren’t compliant with the Euro 6 emissions standard will rise by one tax bracket from April 1st, with rates to increase by anything from £20 to £560 in the first year depending on the model and its current emissions.

Unsurprisingly, the government hasn’t publicised this one very much!

Children’s car seats

Rules around child car seat safety have changes significantly.

You can now no longer buy new backless booster seats for children weighing less than 22kg, or shorter than 125cm, with high back seats featuring guides to lower the level of the seatbelt in line with the passenger’s shoulders.

In addition, all children below 15 months old must now travel in a backwards-facing car seat.

All children must use a child car seat until they’re 12 years old or 135 centimetres tall, whichever comes first. Children over 12 or more than 135cm tall must wear a seatbelt. The law states that children of all ages should not travel in the front of the car unless no other seat is available because it is far safer, but it is not illegal to do so.