Tattooed Women of Yesteryear.

There was a time when seeing a girl with a tattoo was a shocking thing? It was a very rebellious thing to do but these bad ass tattooed women got inked as a way to “take control of their body”!

A tattoo is a form of body modification, made by inserting indelible ink into the dermis layer of the skin to change the pigment, and it officially appeared in 18th century. At that time, the tattooed people were mostly men, until the late 19th to early 20th centuries it first started becoming popular with women.

Here, below are some of amazing vintage photos of tattooed ladies who were known as the most earliest tattooed women.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

See The First Victorian Tattoo Queen

 

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The Lost Art of Cassette Design

Steve Vistaunet’s Pinterest is a treasure-trove of photos of exuberant cassette spine designs from the gilded age of the mix-tape, ranging from the hand-drawn to early desktop publishing experiments.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Boom ! The supersonic plane that could bring back supersonic travel.

Supersonic travel could soon be back.

Boom Supersonic has revealed a £100m investment in Overture, a 55 seater supersonic passenger jet capable of flying at at more than twice the speed of sound, with a range of 5,180 miles.

It could take passengers from London to New York in just 3.5 hours – around half the time it currently takes.

New investors in the Colorado-based company include the Emerson Collective, headed by Laurene Powell Jobs – widow of Apple’s former chief executive, Steve Jobs.

Overture, a 55 seater supersonic passenger jet capable of flying at at more than twice the speed of sound, with a range of 5,180 miles. It could take passengers from London to New York in just 3.5 hours - around half the time it currently takes.

Overture, a 55 seater supersonic passenger jet capable of flying at at more than twice the speed of sound, with a range of 5,180 miles. It could take passengers from London to New York in just 3.5 hours – around half the time it currently takes.

OVERTURE SPECS

Top speed Mach 2.2 (1,451 mph, 2,335 km/h)

170 feet long, with a wingspan of 60 feet

2 pilots, up to 4 cabin crew

55 business class seats onboard

However, only two toilets

‘This new funding allows us to advance work on Overture, the world’s first economically viable supersonic airliner,’ said Blake Scholl, founder of Boom Supersonic.

‘Overture fares will be similar to today’s business class — widening horizons for tens of millions of travelers.

‘Ultimately, our goal is to make high-speed flight affordable to all.’

Boom says Overture will accommodate the use of next-generation alternative fuels and have a carbon footprint comparable to that of present-day business-class travel.

It hopes the new craft will make supersonic travel affordable.

‘With 55 seats and seat-mile costs similar to subsonic business class, supersonic flight is practical on hundreds of transoceanic routes—making it the new norm for anyone who flies business class,’ the firm said.

 Boom is currently assembling XB-1, a ⅓-scale manned prototype of its Mach-2.2 airliner. XB-1 will be piloted by Chief Test Pilot Bill ‘Doc’ Shoemaker and is set to fly later this year.

Future customers include the Virgin Group and Japan Airlines, which have pre-ordered a total of 30 jets between them.

The three-engine Boom aircraft have a sonic boom ‘at least 30 times quieter’ than Concorde.

At landing and takeoff, the company says: ‘Overture will be as quiet as the subsonic aircraft flying similar routes today.’

A fleet of 2,000 of the supersonic passenger planes could eventually link cities across the globe in the future.

The aircraft will have one business-class seat on either side of the aisle so each passenger gets both window and aisle access.

 

A fleet of 2,000 of the supersonic passenger planes could eventually link cities across the globe in the future

A fleet of 2,000 of the supersonic passenger planes could eventually link cities across the globe in the future

Boom Supersonic are currently working on a prototype for a passenger plane that would break the sound barrier and could take passengers from London to New York in just 3.5 hours – around half the time it currently takes.

If its full-size 55-seat plane is approved, the first passengers could be travelling at supersonic speeds around the world by 2023, with fares for a one-way ticket just under £2,000.

Scholl has previously said he believes that as many as 2,000 Boom Supersonic planes could be used on 500 routes that crisscross the world linking hundreds of cities.

Speaking at the Farnborough Airshow, Mr Scholl told the Independent: ‘We are focused on accelerating long transoceanic trips.

‘We want to get the economy of the plane down so that anybody who flies can fly fast.

Boom is currently assembling XB-1, a ⅓-scale manned prototype of its Mach-2.2 airliner. XB-1 will be piloted by Chief Test Pilot Bill ‘Doc’ Shoemaker and is set to fly later this year

‘This is not a private jet for the ultra-wealthy.’

Sir Richard Branson has already backed Boom Supersonic, which expects a prototype of its passenger plane to make its first test flight by the end of this year.

The aircraft will have one business-class seat on either side of the aisle so each passenger gets both window and aisle access.

Boom has confirmed that Virgin Galactic and Japan Airlines will operate the aircraft, with Japan Airlines investing £7 million ($10 million) in Boom Supersonic in December 2017.

Together, they have pre-ordered a combined 30 Overture airliners.

As part of the deal Japan’s number two carrier has the option to purchase up to 20 Boom aircraft and will provide its knowledge and experience as an airline to hone the aircraft design and help refine the passenger experience.

If its full-size 55-seat plane is approved, the first passengers could be travelling at supersonic speeds around the world by 2023, with fares for a one-way ticket just under £2,000.

Other U.S based start-ups incuding Aerion Supersonic, and Spike Aerospace are also aiming to re-start supersonic flights by the mid-2020s by modifying existing engines rather than spending billions of dollars to make new ones.

However, a study released last week claimed that reviving supersonic passenger flights will harm the environment, cause too much pollution and will be too noisy.

The US-based International Council on Clean Transportation said that modified engines will burn five to seven times more fuel per passenger than subsonic jets, exceeding global limits for new subsonic jets by 40 per cent for nitrogen oxide and 70 per cent for carbon dioxide.

Concorde, the last supersonic passenger jet, entered service in 1976 and continued flying for 27 years. It is one of only two supersonic transports to have been operated commercially.

It had a maximum speed of twice the speed of sound at Mach 2.04 (1,354 mph or 2,180 km per hour at cruise altitude) and could seat 92 to 128 passengers.

Concorde was jointly developed and manufactured by Aérospatiale and the British Aircraft Corporation (BAC) under an Anglo-French treaty.

Air France and British Airways each received seven aircraft.

Concorde was retired in 2003 due to a general downturn in the commercial aviation industry after the type’s only crash in 2000, the September 11 attacks in 2001, and a decision by Airbus, the successor to Aérospatiale and BAC, to discontinue maintenance support.

Harley-Davidson unveils new range of electric Bikes


Harley-Davidson has a special place in the hearts of motor-bike enthusiasts around the world.

The United States-founded company has been creating bikes for well over 100 years and its latest refocus on innovative technology has pushed the company to create an impressive series of bikes.

Harley-Davidsons  has unveiled its first ever electric motorcycles and an electric bicycle, in what is being seen as the most radical shakeup of the struggling company in its 115-year-history.

Matt Levatich, CEO of the Milwaukee-based company, said the new products were designed in response to changing times.

“We are not running away from our core,” he said.

The electric motorcycle range will include several of what Mr Levatich called “lightweight, urban” transportation products that are designed specifically to appeal to “young adults, globally, living in dense urban spaces.”

In 2014 the company signalled its interest in electric motorbikes with the LiveWire electric prototype, which will go on sale next summer. Earlier this year the company announced an investment in electric motorcycle company Alta Motors.

On Monday they presented as many as five more electric models – including lightweight, urban bikes – which will be on sale by 2022.

They also unveiled their electric bicycle.

LiveWire
Harley-Davidson’s LiveWire electric bike 

The company revealed plans to promote its motorbikes in emerging markets, with a small motorcycle model introduced in India in the next two years; a series of middleweight bikes in 2020 in Europe; and an expansion of ranges and distribution in China.

At the same time, the company will attempt to retain market dominance with the classic Harleys – full-size touring and cruiser motorcycles – that are the backbone of its international sales.

The all-electric bike is supposed to boast an approximate range of 110 miles or 177 km of mixed city/highway riding. Relatively quick in its electric bike class, the LiveWire has an acceleration of 0-60 mph with a time of 3.5 seconds.

Another major take away from the LiveWire unveiling centers around the bike’s connectivity. Harley-Davidson created a suite of connected services enabled by an LTE-connected Telematics Control Unit hidden under the bike’s seat.

This allows riders to stay fully connected to their bike and surrounding area to provide a better riding experience.

Two Prototypes

Harley- Davidson Unveils Its New Electric Bikes
Source: Harley-Davidson

Harley-Davidson also showed off their dirt bike and moped prototypes to the CES audience. Though there is very little known about the new electric bikes these bikes embody a radical a new beginning for the company; embracing a new design language and tech for the company.

Harley- Davidson Unveils Its New Electric Bikes
Source: Harley-Davidson

Jennifer Hoyer from Harley-Davidson’s Media relations described the products stating, “Both electric concepts provide enhanced attainability for customers around the world. These premium entry-level concepts widen accessibility both for new audiences, and the traditional Harley-Davidson customer.”

Harley- Davidson Unveils Its New Electric Bikes
Source: Harley-Davidson

“Our goal for these concepts is to not require a motorcycle license to operate and feature clutch-free operation, lowering the learning curve and increasing access to attract new riders in the process.”

 

1936 Stout Scarab: The World’s First Minivan?

The 1936 Stout Scarab came about in the early 1930s when William B. Stout, head of the Stout Engineering Laboratories in Dearborn, Michigan, dreamed of rear-engine/rear-wheel drive. “When we finally ‘unhitch Old Dobbin’ from the automobile,” he wrote in Scientific American, “the driver will have infinitely better vision from all angles. The automobile will be lighter and more efficient and yet safer, the ride will be easier, and the body will be more roomy without sacrificing maneuverability.”

The Stout Scarab was a streamlined, fenderless, monoform six-passenger sedan that can stake a claim as the world’s first minivan. With a stubby front end, a boxy middle and a gloriously curved rear, the car certainly resembled its beetle namesake, the scarab.

 

 

The packaging was probably the Scarab’s greatest contribution to the development of the modern car. The wheels were placed at the corners, not unusual for the time, but rather than following the convention of expressing the fenders and running boards as separate design elements, the car’s body stretched right over them in a single, sleek form.

The engine was located in the rear, and the hood and front-end assembly were minimised. This allowed the passenger cabin to be stretched out between the wheels, giving the volume of a small room and the appointments to match. The driver sat immediately behind the front wheel, creating the first cab-forward architecture.

 

Art Deco design details included the winged moustache sitting between the two eye-like headlights, and over a smiling hood shutline, chrome wraparound bumpers, and an epic waterfall grille that extended from the top of the rear window down across the engine to the bumper below.

The interior was accessed either through a driver’s door or a single middle door on the passenger side. The driver’s seat and the rear bench seat were fixed, but other seats could be moved around to face each other, creating a traveling social space, complete with a small table.

 

The seats could be removed and the table folded out to allow space for a small portable office for the traveling businessman, complete with a bed. The seats were leather and chrome, and the interior finishes were light wood panelling and a polished wicker headliner.

“The interior of the car is extremely comfortable and roomy, with a table and movable chairs,” reported The Phillips Shield, a publication of the Phillips 66 petroleum company.

The creative engineering of the Scarab was equal to the packaging, employing one of the first examples of monocoque construction and four-wheel independent suspension.

The first running prototype Scarab was built in 1932 and subsequent cars were built over the rest of the decade. Stout had never intended to build more than 100 cars a year, at a price of $5000 (or around $89,000 today) and they were to be sold on an “invitation only-basis”. Records are missing and stories conflicting, but between six and nine Scarabs were built, each different according to the owner’s tastes.

 

Stout abandoned his Scarab project as World War II intervened, and he sold his company and services to Consolidated Vultee Aviation Aircraft (Convair). However, after the war, he developed one more Scarab – the Experimental. Working with Owens-Corning, the car was the world’s first to feature either a fibreglass body or pneumatic suspension.

William Stout, left, with a Scarab.

 

A final, updated version constructed in 1946, the Stout Scarab Experimental, utilized a fiberglass body shell—claimed to be the world’s first—and air suspension. That’s Bill Stout at the wheel. This car still exists today in the collection of the Detroit Historical Society.

Today, miraculously, five Scarabs still exist, and two of these are in running condition. The Scarab and William Stout remain an inspiration to designers, especially now as we consider anew the interior space of the car without a driver. Will it have the flexibility and functionality of the Scarab?

Stout’s talents for transferring technology between one form of transport to another should inspire us to look around for trends and inspiration in unlikely places. And lastly, Stout’s personal engineering and design motto, “Simplicate (as opposed to complicate) and add lightness” – often wrongly ascribed to Colin Chapman – inspires us in an era of over-designed objects and environments.

The Magnificent 1938 Bugatti Type 57SC Atlantic Coupe From the Ralph Lauren Collection

Designer Ralph Lauren is the proud owner of one of the world’s most handsome, interesting and fine specimens – the 1938 Bugatti 57SC Atlantic Coupe.

This gem is one of the rarest and most expensive cars in the world, designed by Jean Bugatti, son of founder Ettore. This beauty is estimated to be worth around $40 million US, why? Besides the fact it’s a visual work-of-art which has been on display in museums such as the Cleveland Museum of Art, there are only three known examples of the Atlantic world-wide.

Apart from Lauren’s, one Atlantic recently changed hands for $38 million and is now in Mullin Automotive Museum in Los Angeles. The third and final was destroyed in a train accident in the 1950s.

Lauren added the Atlantic to his considerable car collection in 1988. His collection boasts 60-odd rare cars ranging from a 1958 Ferrari Testarossa to a 1929 Bentley Blower – all housed in a disguised office park-like building in Bedford Hills, New York.

Said to reach speeds of up to 200 km/h the Atlantic has a truly stunning hand-formed aluminium body, low stance and still boasts many of its original features: the original interior upholstery made of goatskin leather, seats stuffed with horsehair and the original EXK6 UK registration.

“I’ve always been inspired by automotive design — the materials, the lines, but also the power and functionality. Cars are like art — moving art — an accomplishment in mechanics and precision.” — Ralph Lauren.

Lauren has so much passion for his Bugatti he took inspiration from it to create his latest watch collection. The Elm burl wood dials, black alligator straps and Amboyna burl wood bezels are reminiscent of the car’s rich interior.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Unlocking The Mysteries Of Ulfberht Swords, The All-Powerful Viking Swords

The all-powerful Ulfberht swords with blades so strong that it still baffles experts today.

Ulfberht Swords

When you think of medieval warfare, we think of swords. In the age before gunpowder, the best way to kill your enemy was usually just to stab him with a big hunk of steel.

But if you think that everyone was using swords, you might be a little off-base. Even if you tried to equip an entire army with swords, you would have quickly run into the biggest problem associated with warfare no matter the era: money.

Swords were incredibly expensive. Depending on where you lived, a good sword could cost about £1,200 to £24,000 in today’s money. Of course, it’s hard to directly translate the cost between the medieval period and today, simply because the economy worked so differently. But the bottom line is if you wanted a good sword, it wasn’t cheap.

But what if you wanted a really good sword? A sword that was so much better than everything else of its era that it was almost mythical? Then you needed an Ulfberht. And you had better bring some serious cash.

The Ulfberht swords, largely associated with Vikings, were basically like the Ferraris of their time. They were a symbol of wealth, status, and they would perform better than what most other people were using.

We don’t know much about who made the Ulfberht swords, but we do know that they were probably made in the Kingdom of Francia (around modern-day France and Germany). This was traditionally where the best swords were made, and the Ulfberht “brand” might have made the best swords in Francia.

These swords were said to have been sharper, stronger, and more flexible than anyone else’s. That gave the user a huge advantage in battle. You could block an enemy’s sword and trust that your blade wouldn’t shatter, which was a constant concern. And in an era where the best warriors wore mail coats, an Ulfberht sword would slice through that protection better than other swords.

It was the closest thing to a lightsaber in medieval Europe. And that’s actually a better comparison than you might think. That’s because the process used to make Ulfberht swords was centuries ahead of the competition. In fact, it wouldn’t be possible to replicate it on a large scale until the industrial revolution.

Viking Swords

The secret to Ulfberht swords was the distribution of carbon in the blade. Steel swords were made by mixing iron and carbon to produce steel. Add too much carbon and the sword becomes brittle and breaks. Add too little, and it will just bend. The Ulfberht swords used the perfect amount to produce blades that were sharper and more durable than anyone else’s.

But we’re still not entirely sure how the makers did that, though it may have involved borrowing some the techniques used by Arab smiths to produce the famous “Damascus Steel.”

The process involved using trace amounts of other minerals and heating them together with iron and carbon in a crucible to produce first-rate steel. And getting these materials from as far as India involved a global trade network you don’t usually associate with the period.

Were the makers of the Ulfberht swords using the same techniques? Possibly. If not, then they somehow produced something very similar to Damascus Steel on their own, with almost no impurities in the metal. And they quickly became famous, and probably rich, for it.

Most likely, steel was shipped up from the Arab empires or India through the rivers of Eastern Europe by traders. There, they were turned into swords in what is now Germany. Then they were sold to Norse and Frankish nobles who wanted a quality blade to use against their enemies. It’s hard to say exactly what an Ulfberht cost, but it was probably something only the richest noblemen could afford.

Ulfberht Sword Picture

There are about 170 true Ulfberht swords that have survived to the present day. They’re all in the traditional “Viking” style with a long, double-edged blade and a straight crossbar over the grip and all of them have the name “Ulfberht” stamped into the blade. Whoever was making the swords clearly understood the importance of branding.

But like any modern brand, the Ulfberht brand was quickly beset with imitators. Because Ulfberht swords were so famous, other people soon realized they could sell their swords for more by stamping the Ulfberht name on the blade, even if they didn’t use the same techniques. And since the people who bought these swords were relying on them for battle, this had deadly consequences.

Ulfberht is itself a Frankish personal name. That might imply that the original inventor was a man named Ulfberht. But since the swords were made for about 200 years, he certainly wasn’t the only one producing them.

And because there are so many imitation swords out there, figuring out who originally created the mythic Ulfberht swords or where they did it has baffled archeologists for decades, and will likely long remain a mystery.